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Bihar State is one of the important state in India. the Government of India has alloted three Smart Citeis to the Bihar State.
Bihar is located in the eastern part of the country . It is an entirely land�locked state, although the outlet to the sea through the port of Kolkata is not far away. Bihar lies mid-way between the humid West Bengal in the east and the sub humid Uttar Pradesh in the west which provides it with a transitional position in respect of climate, economy and culture. It is bounded by Nepal in the north and by Jharkhand in the south. The Bihar plain is divided into two unequal halves by the river Ganga which flows through the middle from west to east.
Bihar has witnessed golden period of Indian history. It is the same land where the seeds of the first republic were sown and which cultivated the first crop of democracy. Such fertile is the soil that has given birth to innumerous intellectuals which spread thelight of knowledge and wisdom not onlyinthe country but in the whole world. Nalanda and Vikramshila Universities werethe world class learning centres. It is a Place of the founders of two great religionsofthe world, Gautam Buddha and Mahavir. The tenth Guru of Sikhism, Guru Govind Singh was born in Patna, the Capitalof Bihar. Patna is situated on the bank of the holy river Ganga. The state as it is today has been shaped from its partition from the province of Bengal and most recently after the separation of the tribal southern region now called Jharkhand.
The State of Bihar was reorganized on November 15, 2000 with 38 districts of undivided Bihar. It lies mid-way between West Bengal in the east and Uttar Pradesh in the west. It is bounded by Nepal in the North and by Jharkhand in the south. It is divided into two natural regions viz., North Bihar Plain and South Bihar Plain. The state has several rivers such as Ganga, Sone, Gandak, Ghaghra, Bagmati, Kosi, Budhi Gandak, Punpun, etc. Forty-one per cent of cultivated area is flood prone and another forty per cent is drought prone. After the bifurcation, the State is left with cultivable land in the Indo-Gangetic Plain and abundant water, both surface and sub-surface, for irrigation. Agriculture is the dominant economic activity employing around three quarters of the work force in the State. The primary sector contributes around 38 per cent of the Gross State Domestic Product. Primary crops include rice, cane, wheat, lentils, jute etc. Supplementary crops include oilseeds, pulses, barely, gram and maize and a variety of vegetables. The State is also known of its fruit products like litchi and mango. Some of the major industries in Bihar are Agro-based such as textiles, oil mills, etc. Industries that are dependent on agriculture are the edible oils mills located at Araria, rice mills located in Rohtas,Buxar and Bhojpur. Numerous sugar mills located in north Bihar. One of the biggest oil refineries in the country is based at Barauni in Bihar. Bihar is also the sixth largest producer of tobacco in the country.
Rivers One of the most striking feature of the river system of Bihar is the dominant role of Ganga. The important rivers that join the Ganga from the north are, from west to east, Ghaghra, the Gandak, the Burhi Gandak, the Kosi, the Mahananda and its tributaries. Sonpur, which is situated along Ganga's bank is famous for the great bathing festival which is the occasion for the greatest cattle and elephant fair in the world. The Karmanasa, the Sone, the Punpun, the Phalgu, the Sakri and the Kiul are the principal streams that joins the Ganga from the south.
Commerce and Industries The principal commercial products of Bihar are: 1. Crops - rice, wheat, lentils, maize [corn], sugar cane. 2. Fruits - mangoes, bananas, jack-fruit, and litchis. Fibers - silk [particularly from the Bhagalpur region in the East, producers of a distinct quality of silk, namely, tussar or tussah]; and jute, transported to factories located mostly near Calcutta for easy export of the finished material. Forest Products - hard wood timber, saal and sakhua from the north; also cane for weaving, particularly from the swamps in West Champaran district of North Bihar. North Bihar, a rich agricultural area, has many industries associated with agricultural products. There is numerous sugar factories scattered throughout the area. Many rice and edible oil mills also dot the landscape. It also has some sundry, but important, manufacturing plants, for example the Button Factory at Mehsi [East Champaran, and the old and renowned rail wagon manufacturing plant, the Arthur Butler & Co, at Muzaffarpur. Immediately after independence however, a major industrial complex grew around Barauni. The industrial plants located there are: the Fertilizer Factory, the Oil [petroleum] Refinery Plant, and the Thermal Power Station. A Thermal Power Plant is also in operation at Kanti, in the Muzaffarpur district along its border with East Champaran.Recently a thermal Power plant has also begun operation at Barh in Patna district. Regarding commerce and North Bihar, mention must be made of the gigantic annual cattle fair at Sonpur in the Saran district, close to the confluence of the Gandak and Ganges riveRs. The fair is held around the religious festival of Kartik Purnima - full moon in the month of Kartik in the Hindu lunar calendar [corresponding to some time in Oct-Dec in the Gregorian calendar], which marks the end of the holy month of Kartik. This fair is reputed to be one of the world's largest such fair, where not just cattle but also exotic animals and horses and elephants are traded in large number. It attracts a large number of tourists from many countries. The Government of Bihar, through their Department of Tourism, provides many amenities for their boarding and lodging.