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JHARKHAND � A GENERAL OVERVIEW
Jharkhand, which is located in the eastern region of India, was born on 15 November 2000. It was bifurcated from the southern part of Bihar. It is a land locked territory bounded by the State of Bihar in the north, West Bengal on the east, Orissa in the south and Chhattisgarh in the west. The State comprises 24 districts with the capital being Ranchi. Rivers like Koel, Subarnarekha, Damodar, Barakar, Ajoi, Mor, Konar and Bokaro flow in the State and this explains the potential of hydel power in the State. Climate of the State in general is tropical with hot summers and cold winters.
The Government of INdia has alloted only one Smart City for the State of Jharkhand.
Maximum rainfall occurs from July to September accounting for more than 90 percent of total rainfall in the State The State is generously endowed with mineral wealth. It has some of the richest deposits of iron and coal in the world apart from being part of one of the most industrialized regions in the country. Besides minerals, it is gifted with adequate water resources, relatively moderate climate and a very fertile land providing tremendous scope for horticulture and floriculture The State offers a large pool of trained manpower, good educational and technical institutions, research laboratories, favorable industrial climate and a good rail, road and telecommunication network.
Jharkhand - Economy
The economy of the Jharkhand gets it revenue from the mineral resources sector for the State has a rich storehouse of minerals. The State has almost 40 percent of the mineral reserves found in India. The various kinds of minerals found in Jharkhand are iron ore, granite, coal, copper, mica, bauxite, and chromite. Jharkhand also exports its mineral products to various countries such as Saudi Arabia, Bangladesh, South Africa, and Nepal. This sector has given a major boost to the economy of the State.
The economy of the State of Jharkhand depends for its revenue on the industrial sector to a very large extend. This is due to the fact that the State has industrialized cities such as Bokaro, Jamshedpur, and Dhanbad. In Jharkhand there are companies like Tata Iron and Steel Company, Indian Tube Company, Sriram Bearing, Usha Martin, and Tata Engineering and Locomotive Company. The industries have contributed to the growth of the economy in Jharkhand. The economy in the State of Jharkhand gets its revenue from the agricultural sector, as almost 75 percent of the people of the State are dependent on this sector.
The various kinds of crops grown in Jharkhand are rice, oilseeds, wheat, potatoes, maize, and pulses. The State also produces a wide variety of vegetables and fruits like ladies finger, brinjal, tomato, cabbage, mango, lemon, and papaya. Jharkhand produced in land of round 18.05 lakh hectares more than 21 lakh tonnes of agricultural produce. This sector has also to a certain extend helped the State�s economy to grow
Jharkhand�s economy also gets its revenue from the tourism sector but this sector's contribution is comparatively less. This is due to the fact that although the State has places of religious and archaeological significance and also lakes, hills, and wildlife to attract the tourists, the State government has not fully exploited this sector. The other sectors that contribute to the economy in the State of Jharkhand are cottage industry, IT industry, and silk goods. In order to boost the economy, the State government has started to make some efforts by developing the infrastructure and also by promoting the setting up of new industries.
The economy survey report 2011 says the performance of the primary sector declined in the last decade, though the secondary and tertiary sectors performed well in relative terms. In the primary sector, agriculture growth remained stagnant in the last ten years, mainly due to inadequate irrigation. Jharkhand irrigated only 12 per cent of its cultivable land. The primary sector, which also includes animal husbandry, forestry and fishing, declined to 23.30 percent of GSDP from 30 per cent in the last ten years.
Agriculture is the main stay for the 80 percent of rural population of the State. It is their employment and primary income generating activity. The agricultural economy of the Jharkhand is characterized by dependence on nature, low investment, low productivity, mono cropping with paddy as the dominant crop, in inadequate irrigation facilities and small and marginal holdings. Agriculture activities are depended totally on rainfall and 92 percent of the total cultivated area is yet to come under irrigation. The cultivable land resources of the State have good potential for higher production of horticulture and forest products.
The soil is young and has high capacity of fixation of humus. The forest provides sufficient biomass to feed its soiling. However, soil erosion and failure to recycle the biomass is depleting the soil fertility. Despite the fact that the State has a good rainfall, the surface water availability to agriculture is not sufficient due to inadequate storage facilities etc. as far as the status of ground water is concerned, it is also in the poor the State, due to little recharging of ground water by natural process in absence of artificial recharging facilities, as a result, the water label in the plateau is going down.
. Initiatives of the government to improve the agriculture sector
Encouraging shifting from the traditional mono cropping to multiple cropping, horticulture, organic farming and diversified agriculture.
Better management of natural resources for sustainable agriculture and post harvest management and processing.
Improvement of the soil texture and structure by soil treatment programmes organized by the Department of Agriculture and the establishment of Soil Testing Laboratories to gauge the fertility status of the soil.
Establishment / Renovation of Seed Village to increase the Seed Replacement Rate (the percentage of area sown out of the total area of crop planted in the season by using certified / quality seeds).
Control of pest and diseases through Integrated Pest Management techniques to get maximum productivity.
Increasing productivity by introducing intensive modern agricultural implements and minimizing cost of production.
Jharkhand - Mining
Availability of Minerals in Jharkhand Jharkhand has large deposits of minerals. 40 percent of the total minerals of the country are available in the State. The State is the sole producer of cooking coal, uranium and pyrite. It ranks first in the production of coal, mica, kyanite and copper in India. The geological exploration and exploitation of gold, silver, base metals precious stones etc. are the potential areas of futures. The principal export destinations for minerals are Bangladesh, Nepal, South Africa and Saudi Arabia.
Opportunities in Mining and Minerals Sector (Mineral Based Industries)
The availability of abundant mineral resources has led to the setting up of a number of industries in the State which include, inter alia, iron and steel, cement, coke ovens, washeries, refractories, alumina, sponge iron, ceramic, graphite processing, granite cutting and polishing etc. The State Industrial Policy (SIP) has categorized the mineral based industries as a thrust area. The SIP also lays down the policy instruments, strategy and infrastructural support for establishment of such projects.
� Iron & Steel
� Alumina & Aluminium
� Gem Stone
� Minor Minerals ( Brick Making, Stone Crushing, Etc)
The Industrial Policy covers the following clauses relevant to the mining and mineral sector:
� Simplify procedures and expedite granting of mining leases.
� Provide relief to make mining activities easier.
� Encourage use of modern exploration techniques.
� Set up a resource inventory of various minerals in the State.
� Encourage joint venture projects with the State Mineral Development Corporation.
� Clear mining lease applications and project report within 60 days.
� Encourage foreign investment and technological collaboration
Infrastructure Land Land / Sheds in Growth Centre / Industrial Areas etc. Land / Sheds in growth centres, Industrial areas, etc. would be allotted to entrepreneurs for setting their industrial units on lease of thirty years on annual rent with the facility of renewal. The rent payable for land so allotted would be subjected to revision after every ten years. The land/sheds allotted for the purpose of setting up of industrial unit shall not be allowed to be used for any other purpose other than the purpose for which the land has been leased. It would also be ensured that land is allotted as per the actual requirement.
However, the Industry Department shall determine the terms and conditions of the lease deed. The State Government shall constitute a "Land Bank" at District level to make available the required land to intending entrepreneurs to overcome the delay in land acquisition process. Waste land / Degraded forest land may be made available by the State Government on long term lease basis after taking prior approval from the Government of India under section 2 of Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980 wherever required, for plantation development / tourism purposes which will encourage forest based / tourism industries.
Allotment of Government Land
Allotment of government land at times gets delayed mainly on account of the fact that the competent authority is required to make references to a number of departments before taking a view in the matter. To expedite the process, number of inter departmental references would be minimized along with decentralization of powers to the level of Collectors. Collectors would maintain detailed information regarding all available government land in the district in the form of 'Land Bank'. While the Collectors would be authorized to allot up to 5 acres of government land for industrial purpose, Government land in excess of 5 acres would be leased to entrepreneurs with the approval of the High Level Empowered Committee headed by the Member, Board of Revenue. The land would be allotted at predetermined rates.
Private Industrial Estates: Government would encourage establishment of Private Industrial Estates by acquiring and making available such land at the acquisition cost. The Government in turn will also provide infrastructure facilities such as water, electricity and road at the doorstep of such private industrial estate. The extent of such private industrial estate shall not be less than hundred (100) acres. Such private industrial estate shall be allowed to install a Captive Power Plant to generate and distribute power directly within such industrial estate.
Social Infrastructure: Social infrastructure in close proximity of industrial areas / estates would be developed. The Government would encourage private participation in putting up well planned and systematic residential facilities, quality residential / non-residential schools, hospitals etc. Large industries would be persuaded to establish such facilities individually or to pool their resources to set up these facilities collectively. The State Government shall endeavor to provide land and other facilities at concessional rates for this purpose.
Growth Centres: The State Government has formulated an ambitious plan to set up and promote 3-Tier Growth Centres, namely at Mega, Mini and Micro levels. Mega Growth Centres at Barhi, Hazaribagh have been taken up for providing modern infrastructure facilities for rapid industrialization. These growth centres envisages an investment of US $ 6.66 million to US $ 8.88 million (INR 30 to 40 crores) and shall provide quality infrastructure inputs like land, water, power, communication, etc. Industry specific Mini Growth Centres are being contemplated to be set up by the government at different locations in the State where specific industrial activity needs to be boosted. The location of these growth centres has been selected keeping in mind the inherent location advantages with respect to availability of raw material, manpower, connectivity and market.
The Government shall provide following facilities at such growth centres:
� Highest slab of capital investment and interest subsidy.
� Highest slab of other relevant subsidies.
� Quality infrastructure support, which includes, good road connection to the nearest highway.
� Priority in power allocation to such growth centres.