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The State of Karnataka is located within 11.5 degree North and 18.5 degree North latitudes and 74 degree East and 78.5 degree east longitude. It is situated on a tableland where the Western and Eastern Ghat ranges converge into the Nilgiri hill complex, in the Western part of the Deccan Peninsular region of India. The State is bounded by Maharashtra and Goa States in the North and North-West; by the Arabian Sea in the West; by Kerala and Tamilnadu States in the South and by the States of Andhra Pradesh in the East. Karnataka extends to about 750 km from North to South and about 400 km from East to West.
The Government of INdia has alloted Six Smart Cities for the State of Karnataka. They are
Karnataka has been a middle -ranking State among 15 major States of India on a variety of development indicators. During the 11th five year plan perod, the State's economy has gown by 8.0 percent while the country's economy as per CAGR was 7.9 percent. GDP of the State during 2011-12 was Rs.2,97,964 crores at constant prices. The services sector recorded 10.6 percent growth rate.
The PC GSDP at current prices was estimated to be Rs.68468 during 2011-12. Karnataka recorded the second highest level of percapita development expenditure during 2010-11, being Rs.7853/- while all State's average was Rs.,6055 Per Capita plan expenditure has been Rs.6345/-. Literacy rate increased from 66.64 percent in 2001 to 75.60 percent in 2011. Urban male literacy rate has crossed 90 percent mark.
Fertility rates are falling at a fast pace, the State's record being 1.8 children per women of productive age. It is around 1.0 in several districts. leading to decline in enrolments in schools and the phenomenon of small schools. The HDR of Karnataka is 10 among 19 major States. Karnataka is a culturally rich State. Private enterprise is quite significant. A huge chain of Government and Private hostels support the school sector. The Finance Department carries a General Budget Cell.
Area and Administrative Divisions:- The state has a total land area of 1,91,791 sq.km, accounting for 5.83% of the total area of the country (32.88 lakh sq. km) and ranks eighth among major States in terms of size. As per 2011 Census, the State's population was 611 lakhs (approximately). There are 968 females per thousand population. Karnataka occupies Ninth place with regard to population and the density of population as per 2011 Census was 319 persons per sq. km which was lower than the all-India density of 382. Karnataka State has been divided into four Revenue divisions, 49 sub-divisions, 30 districts, 177 taluks for administrative purposes. And also the State has 27,028 inhabited and 2,362 uninhabited villages, 281 (241 Municipalities) towns and urban agglomerations. Bangalore is the sixth largest urban agglomeration out of 23 metropolis, urban agglomerations and cities in India.
Geology:- The geology of Karnataka lay widespread in 5 major eras, namely the Archean, Proterozoic, Mesozoic and the Ceonzoic. The geology of Karnataka is largely confined to the two oldest eras; the Archean and the Proterozic. The rest of the great periods from Cambrian to recent are hardly represented but for minor sediments of recent age exposed along the coastal margin to the West. A substantial part of North Karnataka is covered by Deccan trap, representing phenomenal outburst of volcanic activity at the dawn of the Cenozoic era.
The state is exposed oldest rocks in Gorur area, Hassan district, Karnataka date back to about 3300 million years. The Precambrian craton of Karnataka is made up of western and eastern segments. The Precambrians of Karnataka have been divided into older Sargur supracrustals (about 3300 to 3000 million year old) and younger Dharwar supracrustals (about 3000 to 2600 million year old. The Dharwar supracrustals Supergroup has been further divided into older Bababudan Group (ca.3000 to 2700 million years) and younger Chitradurga Group (ca.2700 to 2500 million years). The schist belts of the Eastern craton, like Kolar, Hutti, Sandur etc., appear to be approximately equivalent to the Chitradurga Group.
The Karnataka craton has been extensively intruded by granites and granitoids of the ca. age2600 to 2500 million years. The eastern Karnataka abounds in these granites and granitoids. The northern part of Karnataka is made up of Kaladgi and Badami and Bhima Group of sediments, approximately of Proterozoic age. Further north the terrain is covered by extensive volcanic flows known as Deccan traps of Cretaceous -Tertiary age.
Agriculture:- Karnataka is the largest producer of coffee, raw silk and sandalwood based products like perfumes and 75% of Indian floriculture industry is located in Karnataka. The state accounts for 59% of the country�s coffee production and 47% of the country�s ragi production. About 70% of the people live in the villages and 71% of the total work force is engaged in agriculture. The lower slopes of the Western Ghats in Kodagu District, Chikmagalur District and Hassan District produce coffee. Sandalwood comes from the dense forested areas of southern Karnataka. Mysore District is the primary producer of raw silk in India and the world famous Mysore silk saris which are manufactured at the Mysore silk factories. Water rich areas of Mandya District, Shimoga District, Dakshina Kannada districts produce most of the sugarcane though cultivation of this crop is wide spread. Jute, Jowar, Bajra, and pulses (Tur and gram) and oil seeds are largely grown in the drier areas of northern and north-central Karnataka. Cotton is grown in abundance in Gulbarga District and Davangere District is a center of cotton trade and industry.
Socio Economic Profile:- As per the 2011 census, the total population of the state amounts to 6,11,30,704. Out of which the males constitute to about 3, 10, 57,742 and females to about 3,00,72,962. The literacy of the state is 55.98%. Population density is 319 per km sq. The sex ratio is 968 females to 1000 males.
Landslide:- Hilly regions of Western Ghats spread in the districts of Kodagu, Chikmagalur, Hassan, Shimoga, D. Kannada and U. Kannada record a very high normal rainfall of 2000mm to 4000mm. Landslides are common in these districts. During the rainy periods these hilly regions regularly experience displacement of rocks and soils causing widespread damage to property, infrastructure such as rails, roads and loss of human life.
Karnataka State Disaster Management Authority (KSDMA):- The State Disaster Management Authority (SDMA) shall function as the apex decision making body headed by the Chief Minister. It shall facilitate, co-ordinate, review and monitor all disaster related activities in the state including capacity building. The Authority shall lay down the State Disaster Management policy and guidelines to be followed by the government departments and approve the State Disaster Management Plan and Departmental plans in accordance with the guidelines laid down by the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA). The SDMA shall be provided with statutory powers to facilitate, coordinate and monitor the activities related to disaster management utilizing the resources and expertise of relevant government departments, district administration, local authorities, non-governmental organizations, the public sector, international development agencies, donors and the community. It shall also exercise the powers and functions as laid down in the National Disaster Management Act, 2005.
Karnataka State Executive Committee (KSEC):- The SEC assists the KSDMA. The Act envisages establishment of State Executive Committee under Section 20 of the Act, to be headed by the Chief Secretary of the state Government with four other Secretaries of such departments as the state Government may think fit. It has the responsibility for coordinating and monitoring the implementation of the National Policy, the National Plan and the State Plan as provided under section 22 of the Act.
Karnataka State Crisis Management Committee:- The Chief Secretary of the state is the Chairperson of the State Crisis Management Committee. The SCMC gets activated in the event of a crisis. The Chief Secretary is the Incident Commander at the state level and will formulate the response teams/Crisis Management Groups as per the type and severity of the crisis.
Institutional Framework for Metropolitan Cities:- In the larger cities (say, with population exceeding 2.5 million), the recommendation of the second Administrative Reforms Commission has suggested that the Mayor, assisted by the Commissioner of the Municipal Corporation and the Police Commissioner to be directly responsible for Crisis Management. It has now been accepted by the Government.
District Disaster Management Authority (DDMA):- The District Disaster Management Authority (DDMA), headed by the District Commissioner, with the elected representative of the local authority(ZP) as the Co- Chairperson shall act as the planning, coordinating and implementing body for DM at District level and take all necessary measures for the purposes of DM in accordance with the guidelines laid down by the NDMA and SDMA. It shall, inter alia prepare the District DM plan for the district and monitor the implementation of the State Policy, the State Plan and the District Plan. DDMA shall also ensure that the guidelines for prevention, mitigation, preparedness and response measures laid down by the NDMA and the SDMA are followed by all Departments of the State Government at the District level and the local authorities in the district.
Local Authorities (PRIs, ULBs and Development Authorities etc.):- These are the local authorities and are assigned an important role at every stage of Disaster Management at the local level. For the purpose of DM Act, local authorities would include Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRI), Municipalities, District and Cantonment Boards and Town Planning Authorities which control and manage civic services. These bodies shall ensure capacity building of their officers and employees for managing disasters, carrying out relief, rehabilitation and reconstruction activities in the affected areas and shall prepare DM Plans in consonance with guidelines of the NDMA, SDMAs and DDMAs. Specific institutional framework for dealing with disaster management issues in mega cities will be put in place.