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Madhya Pradesh, as its name implies, lies in the heart of India. It covers an area of 4,43,406 sq km, making it the biggest State in the country, bordering seven other states - Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat, and Rajasthan. Madhya Pradesh consists largely of a plateau streaked with the hill ranges of the Vindhyas and the Satpuras,and the Chhattisgarh plains to the east. The hills give rise to the main river systems - the Narmada and the Tapti running from east to west, and the . Chambal,Sone,Betwa,Mahanadiandthe Indravatiwestto east. Intersected by these meandering rivers and dotted with hills and lakes, the State has a varied natural setting of great beauty.
The Government of India has alloted Seven Smart Cities for
the State of Madhya Pradesh. they are as follows
The Government of India has alloted Seven Smart Cities for the State of Madhya Pradesh. they are as follows
Madhya Pradesh (including what is now Chhattisgarh) was
constituted on recommendations of the State Re-organisation
Commission on 1st November 1956. The Mahakoushal and
Chhattisgarh part of the Old Central Provinces (CP) and Berar,
Vindhya Pradesh, Madhya Bharat and Bhopal were merged to form
the new state. Some districts of CP and Berar were transferred
to Maharashtra and there were a few minor adjustments with
Rajasthan, Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh. From 1st November 2000
Chhattisgarh was carved out of Madhya Pradesh. The state is
endowed with rich natural resources, salubrious climate and
fertile agro-climatic conditions. At present Madhya Pradesh
consists of 10 divisions and 50 districts. As per 2001 census,
it has a population of 60 million with a population density of
196 persons per sq.km.
Madhya Pradesh (including what is now Chhattisgarh) was constituted on recommendations of the State Re-organisation Commission on 1st November 1956. The Mahakoushal and Chhattisgarh part of the Old Central Provinces (CP) and Berar, Vindhya Pradesh, Madhya Bharat and Bhopal were merged to form the new state. Some districts of CP and Berar were transferred to Maharashtra and there were a few minor adjustments with Rajasthan, Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh. From 1st November 2000 Chhattisgarh was carved out of Madhya Pradesh. The state is endowed with rich natural resources, salubrious climate and fertile agro-climatic conditions. At present Madhya Pradesh consists of 10 divisions and 50 districts. As per 2001 census, it has a population of 60 million with a population density of 196 persons per sq.km.
Overview of the State :
Madhya Pradesh is the second largest state in the country in terms of area. Its population has crossed the 60 million mark and accounts for 5.88% of the total population of the country. The population density is 196 per kilometer. Out of the total population 26% reside in urban areas and 74% in rural areas. The percentage of scheduled tribe population to total population, as per 2001 Census, works out to 20.27 percent and the percentage of scheduled caste population to total population is 15.17 percent. The State is characterized with variety of geographical, social and cultural variations
Although the modern State of Madhya Pradesh came into being . only in 1956,its culturalheritageis ancientandchequered.Innumerable monuments, exquisitely carved temples, stupas, forts and palates OrThill-tops, raise in the visitor's mind visions of empires and kingdoms, of great warriors and builders, of poets and musicians, of saints and philosophers, of Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Islam. India's immortal poet-dramatist Kalidas and the great musician of the Mughal court, Tansen, hailed from these parts. One-third of the State is forested, and offers a unique and exciting panorama of wildlife. The National Parks of Kanha, Bandhavgarh, Shivpuri and many others offer the rare opportunity to see the tiger, the bison and a wide variety of deer and antelope in sylvan surroundings.
There are ten major rivers that originate from the State. As Madhya Pradesh is located in the center of India, most of the rivers are interstate rivers. The rivers namely Chambal, Sindh, Betwa, Ken flow northward and meet with Yamuna whereas the river Sone falls directly into Ganga. Narmada, Tapti and Mahi rivers flow westward and meet Arabian Sea whereas Wainganga and Pench rivers meet Godavari in the south. Annual run-off from these rivers within the state is estimated 81,719 hm. out of which about 49, 743 hm can be harnessed for irrigation purpose. Rivers in Madhya Pradesh are mostly seasonal and rainfed, receiving maximum water flow during the monsoon season.
The non-monsoon flow in some perennial rivers is mainly due to flow from groundwater. Due to varied topographical, rainfall and climatic conditions in the State, the availability of water is not uniform spatially or temporally. There is an increasing demand of water for human consumption, agriculture and industrial purposes, etc. This coupled with scanty rainfall in past few years, has led to water scarcity which has become a major concern in the State. The post monsoon flow in most of the rivers is used for irrigation which further reduces the already reduced flow in the rivers.
ROLE OF WATERSHED MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME IN THE STATE
In Madhya Pradesh the agriculture sector accounts for nearly one-third of GSDP and forms the backbone of the State's economy. Sustainable and continued agricultural development is essential for the overall development of the State. In Madhya Pradesh, agriculture is characterized by several problems, prominent among which is that of wide year-to-year fluctuations in production and consequently, farm incomes. The absence of assured irrigation in large parts of the State and of appropriate technology for dry land and drought prone areas compounds the problem. The State has 5 crop zones, 11 agro climatic regions and 4 soil types, which add to biodiversity in the State and acts favorably for production of various agriculture and horticulture crops.
There are a high proportion of low value crops with low productivity and agriculture holdings are highly fragmented. There are also large areas of cultivable wastes and fallow lands. According to the 2000-01 Agriculture Census there were 73.60 lakh operational holdings in the State. 65% of agriculture in the State is still traditional and mostly rainfed. With its most cropped area belonging to the rainfed category, the incidence of drought has become more or less a perpetual feature. It is pertinent to note here that in the last ten years the State has faced drought in nine years, which has impacted the GSDP adversely. Added to this the relentless exploitation of the natural resources base in the form of soil cover, vegetative cover and ground water due to increased biotic pressure mounting pressure on fragile eco-system. Rural poverty and extensive unemployment amongst the casual farm and non-farm workers indicates inadequate work opportunities. As consequences the livelihood of rural people's in rainfed agriculture areas has always been under constant threat.
In the context of above background the watershed management programme is the most appropriate and scientific approach for conserving the soil and water resources and optimizing their utilisation to have increased/sustainable agricultural productivity, regeneration of natural vegetation and better livelihood opportunities in rainfed areas of Madhya Pradesh. Ministry of Rural Development, Govt. of India had started watershed management programme in the year 1994 under Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP), Employment Assurance Scheme (EAS) and Integrated Wasteland Development Programme (IWDP). Considering its importance, Government of Madhya Pradesh, Panchayat and Rural Development Department had also constituted Rajiv Gandhi Mission for Watershed Management (RGMWM) in August, 1994 to plan and implement the watershed projects in mission mode with the aim of reducing the vulnerability to droughts, improving the incomes and livelihood of people and also providing short-term employment opportunities. The watershed projects of National Watershed Development Programme In Rainfed Areas under Department Of Agriculture and Watershed Projects funded by NABARD have also been implemented in the state.
DEMOGRAPHY AND LAND DISTRIBUTION
The State has 10 divisions, 50 districts with 53857 villages with 23051 Gram Panchyats. As per the 1991 Census, the total population of the State was 485.66 lakh with 253.94 lakh males and 231.72 lakh females. The density of population was 158 persons per Sq. Km, far below the all India average of 274. However, as per 2001 census the total population of the state works out to 603.85 lakh with 314.57 males & 289.28 lakh females. In terms of population it holds the seventh position among States and Union territories in the country. Out of the total population 26% reside in urban areas and 74% in rural areas. The percentage of scheduled tribe population to total population, as per 2001 Census, works out to 20.27 percent and the percentage of scheduled caste population to total population is 15.17 percent which is lower than the all India figure. The 2001 population census suggests that the population of Madhya Pradesh continues to increase at an average annual rate of growth of 2 percent per year. Every year nearly 1.4 million people are added into the state's population.
TRENDS IN AGRICULTURE AND FOOD PRODUCTIVITY
Madhya Pradesh economy continues to be predominately agrarian, agricultural sector's contribution being 26.01 percent in GSDP for 2007-08. Though the contribution of the primary sector to the State Domestic Product is gradually coming down, agriculture still remains the mainstay of the State 's economy with 70% of the population is still dependent upon agriculture. The net sown area of Madhya Pradesh is 15.07 million ha., which is 49.01% of geographical area. The gross cropped area is 20.30 million ha. More than 70% of workforce finds employment in agriculture sector. 65% of land holders are small and marginal farmers with only 26% land, whereas 35% of land holders are big farmers with 74% of land. Agriculture in Madhya Pradesh is mostly rain-fed, and has to contend with the impeding factors of soil erosion due to rolling topography, the practice of keeping land fallow during the kharif season and taking only one crop in rabi, existence of large areas of cultivable waste land, high proportion of low value crops with low productivity, low consumption of fertilizers.
TOURISM IN MADHYA PRADESH
The Madhya Pradesh Department of Tourism has, to date, sought to develop the tourism potential of the State by involving itself in three major activities: providing decent accommodation in areas of tourist interest, operating a transport fleet of coaches, cars and Gypsys, and organising package tours. Publicity and marketing of tourist destinations and facilities has also been a major thrust activity. Apart from these efforts undertaken by the Government, the private sector has also contributed by way of investment in hotels, transport, and marketing of some important tourist destinations in the State. However, the efforts of the Government and the private sector have . not been dovetailed into a common developmental programme, with the result that there has been over-emphasis at certain venues, while some other important places and activities have been neglected.
Sanctuary Of A Hundred Gods - Pilgrim Tourism
Madhya Pradesh has a large number of religious centres, which draw the devout of all faiths. Places such as Chitrakoot, Amarkantak, Ujjain, Maheshwar, Omkareshwar, Bhojpur, Orchha, Sonagiri, Bawangaja and Muktagiri, are well known pilgrim centres. Ujjain is one of the holiest of Indian cities, and the 'Simhar;tha' (Kumbh Mela) held at Ujjain every twelve years draws millions of pilgrims from all over the country. The Mahakal Temple at Ujjain and the Shri Omkar Mandhata Temple at Omkareshwar house two of the twelve 'Jyotirlingas'. Chitrakoot, where Ram and Sita spent eleven of their fourteen years of exile, and where the principal Trinity of the Hindu pantheon, Bramha, Vishnu, and Mahesh, were incarnated, is another holy centre. Orchha is also well known for its Ramraja Temple, where Lord Ram is worshiped as a King. Bhopal's Taj-ul-Masajid, one of the largest mosques in Asia, is the venue of the annual' Ijtima' which draws mammoth crowds. The many Jain pilgrim centres spread all over the State are also venerated by the followers of the faith.
These centres are aimed at a select clientele who will be willing to pay in foreign currency. It will be ensured that such establishments do not in any way spoil or endanger the cultural ethos and traditions of India or pose a threat to the social fabric of the area. It is expected that substantial local employment opportunities shall be forthcoming. Revenue earned by the Government through taxes and license fees shall be fully utilised in developmental activities