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Manipur literally meaning �A jeweled land� nestles deep within a lush green corner of North East India. It seems much like an exquisite work of art executed by superb hands of Nature and is indeed a state of exquisite natural beauty and splendor, the beauty of which once inspired Mrs. St. Clair Grimwood to describe it as � A Pretty Place more beautiful than many show places of the world� Late Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru paid a fitting tribute by describing it as �Jewel of India�
Surrounded by blue hills with an oval shaped valley at the centre, rich in art and tradition and surcharged with nature�s pristine glory. Manipur lies on a melting pot of culture. It is birth place of Polo. This is the place where Rajashree Bhagyachandra created the famous Ras Lila, the classical dance of Manipur, out of his enchanting dream by the grace of Lord Krishna. After independence of India in 1947, the Princely State of Manipur was merged in the Indian Union on October 15,1949 and became a full-fledged State of India on the 21th January, 1972 with a Legislative Assembly of 60 seats of which 20 are reserved for Scheduled Tribe and 1 reserved for Scheduled Caste.
The State is represented in the Lok Sabha by two members and by one member in the Rajya Sabha. Manipur is one of the Border States in the northeastern part of the country having an international boundary of about 352 km long stretch of land with Myanmar in the southeast. It is bound by Nagaland in the north, Assam in the west and Mizoram in the south. It has a total area of 22327 sq. kms. It lies between 23.80o N to 25.70o N latitude and 93.50o E to 94.80o E longitude.
Manipur had been a union territory from 1956 and a full- fledged state from 21st January, 1972. Manipur has 9 districts namely Bishnupur, Chandel, Churachandpur, Porompat, Lamphelpat, Senapati, Tamenglong, Thoubal, Ukhru. Handloom is the biggest industry in Manipur. Its major towns are Moreh, Churachandpur, Andro, Jiribam, Thoubal, Kakching, Imphal, Ukhrul, Mao, Tamenglong, Kongpokpi, Chandal, Moirang. It has 60 seats of legislative assembly of which 19 are reserved for scheduled Castes. The state is represemnted in the Lok Sabha by two members and one member in the Rajya Sabha.
The soil cover can be divided into two broad types, viz. the red ferrogenous soil in the hill area and the alluvium in the valley. The soil generally contains small rock fragments, sand and sandy clay and are of varieties. The top soils on the steep slopes are very thin. In the plain areas, especially flood plains and deltas, the soil is of considerable thickness. Soil on the steep hill slopes is subjected to high erosion resulting into formation of sheets and gullies and barren rock slopes. The normal pH value ranges from 5.4 to 6.8.
The soil cover of Manipur can be broadly classified into two types namely; Red ferrugious soil which is seen in the hilly area and Alluvium soil in the valley area. The soil of valley regions commonly contains small fragments of rocks, loam, sandy clay and sand and they are quite diverse. The steep slopes consist of a very thin Top soil and these top soils of steep slopes are subjected to high soil erosion which results in culverts and infertile rocky slopes.
Around 64% of the state is covered by natural vegetation. The vegetation of Manipur consists of a variety of plant life that ranges from Short and Tall grasses, Bamboos and Reeds to a variety of tress. The forest area of Manipur state is broadly classified into 4 types they are:
Tropical Semi-Evergreen Forests
Dry Temperate Forests
Tropical Moist Deciduous
The upper reaches of the hills are under forest cover of decidous trees while mixed forest species comprising bamboos, wild bananas etc. occur in the lower steep hills. Jhum cultivation is practiced in places of convenient slope grades on medium hill ranges in normal cycles of 5-10 years. Maize, Sesamum, potato, Ginger, Tapioca and vegetables are grown under the shifting cultivation system. Horticultural crops like Orange, Pineaple, Lemon, etc. are also terraced on hill slopes and used for permanent cultivation.Scars of Jhum fields with secondary growth of vegetation are commonly occured. Valley lands are generally well bunded and used for intensive and permanent agriculture. The ' beel' areas are occupied by luxurient growth of submerged weeds of mixed species.
Socio Economic Profile
The Meitei-lon speaking state of Manipur resides on the far north-eastern edge of the map of India. The landscapes filled with brilliant greenery complemented with the crystal-like water, kayaks in the lakes, and waterfalls in hills, seem to be a common sight in Manipur. The gifted land of Manipur also has a growing population of over 25 lakhs, residing in a vast area of about 20000 kilometer square. The population density of the state is very low, which makes it one of the least population dense areas, in the north east corner of India. Here, the population growth rate is less than 20%. The state also ranks first within the north eastern Indian states, when it comes to the sex ratio. It has a good gender proportion of above 900 females in 1000 males, according to the Manipur census 2011.
As Manipur valley is overcrowded, occurrence of water and air borne epidemics cannot be ruled out. In 2007 almost 150,000 poultry birds had to be culled and safely disposed after the H5N1 strain of the Avian Influenza Virus was detected in some dead birds (Parsai 2007). In 2009 one case of Swine Flu has been reported from Manipur (Manipur reports first swine flu case, alert sounded 2009). In 2010 six people reportedly died following outbreak of Japanese Encephalitis in Manipur and over 70 people were admitted to different hospitals (6 Dead Due to Japanese Encephalitis in Manipur 2010).
Departments of Relief & Disaster Management Provide assistance to the SDMA, State Relief Commissioner, Deputy Commissioners and local authorities in disaster management activities.
Carry out relief, reconstruction and rehabilitation activities under the supervision of the Relief Commissioner and the Deputy Commissioner.
Co-ordinate preparation and the implementation of plan with other departments, local authorities, communities and stakeholders
The Manipur State Disaster Management Authority (SDMA)
Promoting an integrated and coordinated system of disaster management including prevention or mitigation of disaster by the State, local authorities, stakeholders and communities.
Collect/cause to be collected data on all aspects of disasters and disaster management and analyze it and further cause and conduct research and study relating to the potential effects of events that may result in disasters.
Act as a repository of information concerning disasters and disaster management.
Lay down the policies and plans for disaster management in the State.
Promote or cause to be promoted awareness and preparedness and advice and train the community, and stakeholders with a view to increasing capacity of the community and stakeholders to deal with potential disasters.
On the expiry of a disaster declaration, the Authority shall, where necessary, act as an agency for facilitating and coordinating rehabilitation and reconstruction activities by departments of the Government.
The Chief Executive Officer � SDMA CEO of SDMA shall perform a nodal role across different phases of disaster management like;
Coordinate and monitor activities relating to prevention and mitigation of disasters, including capacity-building.
Coordinate and monitor rehabilitation and reconstruction activities.
Monitor the progress of the preparation and updating of disaster management plans and coordinate the implementation of such plans.
Prepare and submit periodically a report to the Authority on the activities undertaken by the Authority.
Delegate his powers and functions to subordinate officers and employees of the Government.
The State Relief Commissioner (Secretary-in-charge of Relief & DM)
On the recommendation of Secretary-in-charge of Relief & DM, State Government may declare disaster.
Secretary-in-charge of Relief & DM has a primary responsibility of co-ordinating an effective emergency response and relief on the occurrence of a disaster.
Prepare, review and update State level Disaster Management Plan and ensure that the district level plans are prepared, revised and updated.
Develop an appropriate relief implementation strategy for the State in consultation with the Authority, taking into account the unique circumstances of each district and deficiency in institutional capacity and resources of the State.
Provide directions to the Deputy Commissioners and the local authorities having jurisdiction over the affected area to provide emergency relief in accordance with disaster management plans to minimize the effects of a disaster.
The Deputy Commissioner
Facilitate and, coordinate with, local Government bodies to ensure that pre and post - disaster management activities in the district are carried out.
Assist community training, awareness programmes and the installation of emergency facilities with the support of local administration, non-governmental organizations, and the private sector.
Take appropriate actions to smoothen the response and relief activities to minimize the effect of disaster. Recommend Secretary-in-charge of Relief & DM and State Government for declaration of disaster.
Provide assistance to SDMA, Secretary-In-Charge of Relief & DM and Deputy Commissioner in disaster management activities.
Ensure training of its officers and employees and maintenance of resources so as to be readily available for use in the event of a disaster.
Ensure that all construction projects under it conform to the standards and specifications laid down.
Each department of the Government in a district shall prepare a disaster management plan for the district. Carry out relief, rehabilitation and reconstruction activities in the affected area within its jurisdiction.
Disaster Management Institute (DMI)
Disaster Management Institute (DMI), a nodal institute established by the State Government for training and capacity building in Disaster Management. The DMI conducts training of different stakeholders including Police Personnel, Village Defence Force (VDF) personnel, Home Guards, Community Volunteers, Students and Teachers in Schools/Colleges and other Stakeholders by conducting theory and practical classes on Disaster Management, conducting awareness generation programmes, and conducting training in Search & Rescue and First Aid.