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Smart City of Nagaland: KOHIMA

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Nagaland, the smallest hilly state situated at the extreme northeastern end of India, lies between 25� 6' and 27� 4' latitude, North of Equator and between the Longitudinal line 93� 20� E and 95� 15�E. The state shares its boundary with Assam on the West, Myanmar on the East, Arunachal Pradesh and parts of Assam on the North and Manipur on the South. Nagaland is noted for its rich incomparable traditional and cultural heritage, folklore, traditional handicrafts, exquisitely picturesque landscapes, flora & fauna, and historic monuments. The economy of the people is fully dependent on Agriculture.

 The state has inadequate socioeconomic development because of relative isolation, the difficult terrain, inaccessibility to the rest of the world and continued insurgency. These factors handicap the State�s endeavors towards industrial and entrepreneurial development, private sector partnership in spearheading development initiatives and all round regional planning. Remoteness and inaccessibility are also the predominant cause for regional disparities in the State. An Index for Social and Economic Infrastructure by the Eleventh Finance Commission, during 1999, ranked Nagaland, with an index of 76.14, as the seventh most remote State in the country. Nevertheless, owing to its strategic location, the State has the potential to develop into an international trade centre in the East Asian region.


The state covers an area of 16,527 Sq. Km., which is approximately 0.5% of the total Indian land mass. Administratively, the State is divided into eleven Districts and the Districts are further divided into EAC Headquarters for effective administration. Nagaland has 11 (eleven) districts and 93 (ninety three) circles. Mokokchung town is not included in any of the circle and hence treated as a separate unit.



Facing the Himalayan ranges across the Brahmaputra valley and stretching NE- SW along the eastern margin of Northeast India, bordering Myanmar, lies the Naga Hills. It represents the northern extension of the Indo- Burma Ranges (IBR) linking the Arunachal Himalaya to the north and Andaman-Nicobar Islands to the south. The N-S trending Patkai, Barail and associated ranges with their varied structural styles impart youthful geomorphology to the Naga Hills. The Cenozoic sedimentary cover in Nagaland accounts for nearly 95 percent of the area whereas the rest is being occupied by igneous and crystalline rocks of Mesozoic- Cenozoic age. These exhibit a general trend of NNE-SSW with moderate to steep dips towards NW and SE. Based on the morphotectonic elements, the Naga Hills has been longitudinally divided, from west to east, into three distinct units, namely- the Schuppen Belt, the Inner Fold Belt and the Ophiolite Belt.

The state is inhabited by 16 major tribes - Ao, Angami, Chang, Konyak, Lotha, Sumi, Chakhesang, Khiamniungan, Bodo-Kachari, Phom, Rengma, Sangtam, Yimchunger, Kuki, Zeme-Liangmai (Zeliang) and Pochury as well as a number of sub-tribes. Each tribe is unique in character with its own distinct customs, language and dress. Two threads common to all, are language and religion - English is in predominant use. Nagaland is one of three states in India where the population is mostly Christian.
Nagaland became the 16th state of India on 1 December 1963. Agriculture is the most important economic activity and the principal crops include rice, corn, millets, pulses, tobacco, oilseeds, sugarcane, potatoes, and fibers. Other significant economic activity includes forestry, tourism, insurance, real estate, and miscellaneous cottage industries. The state has experienced insurgency as well as inter-ethnic conflict since the 1950s. The violence and insecurity have long limited Nagaland's economic development, because it had to commit its scarce resources on law, order and security. In the last 15 years, the state has seen less violence and annual economic growth rates nearing 10% on a compounded basis, one of the fastest in the region.



The soils of Nagaland belong to 4 orders, 7 sub-orders, 10 great groups, 14 sub groups and 72 soil families. The 4 orders found in Nagaland are (i) Alfisols (ii) Entisols (iii) Inceptisols and (iv) Ultisols. Inceptisols dominate the soils of the State with 66% followed by Ultisols 23.8%, Entisols 7.3% and Alfisols 2.9% of the total 16.6 million Hectares of the State Geographical area.



Climate of Nagaland is typical of a tropical country with heavy rain fall. The average rainfall of the area is about 2000mm to 2500mm. Rainfall is high during the monsoon from May to September/October; whereas during winter it is scanty. In summer the temperature ranges from 31oC to 16oC while during winter the same varies between 24oC to 4oC. Spring is warm and humid. On the whole the climatic condition of the state is cool and bracing.


Agro-climatic Zones

The climate of Nagaland to a large extent is controlled by its undulating topographical terrain features. It is hot to warm sub-tropical in area with elevation of 1000-1200m above MSL. The foothill plains, sheltered valleys and the ranges are marked with climatic contrasts. The year is divided into four seasons viz., winter (December-February), Pre-monsoon (March-April), Monsoon (May-September) and retreating monsoon (October-November). The beginning of winter is marked by a steep fall in temperature during December. January is the coldest month. In February the temperature starts rising gradually. The winter winds are generally weak and variable. The average annual temperature ranges from 18�C-20�C to 23�C- 25�C respectively in the higher and lower elevation. The monsoon lasts for five months from May to September with June, July and August being the wettest months. The following agroclimatic zones in Nagaland are divided into four zones:

 Hot per-humid climate

 Hot moist sub-humid climate

 Warm humid climate

 Warm per-humid climate


Socio Economic Profile

 Nagaland is called so, because the people residing there are called Nagas. Its population is widely diverse, and has 16 tribes living in the state. The mostly Christian population of Nagaland draws its culture from many other neighboring regions. The state of Nagaland is one of the least populated states of India, and ranks 25th population wise, owing to its population of less than 20 lacs. The population of Nagaland is spread over an area of over 15000 kilometer square, with a population density of just over 100 in one kilometer square of area, as shown by the Nagaland census 2011. What really sets the state apart from others in India is the growth rate of population in Nagaland. Where, many other states have fallen prey to the population explosion, Nagaland has not only reduced the previous growth rate of above 60%, but it has also brought it to less than zero. This negative growth rate has greatly helped control the population in Nagaland. The growth rate is still above 60 in the urban areas, and far too less in the rural areas.



Nagaland Disaster Management Authority Home Department,

 Nagaland State Disaster Management Authority (DM) and Relief and Rehabilitation (RR) shall be the nodal department for disaster management and Home Commissioner shall implement the decisions of the SEC pertaining to State level Response to natural disasters. Disaster response being a multi-agency function, other Departments of the State Governments will provide emergency support in their relevant domains at the State/District levels.

State Emergency Operation Centers

 The Emergency Operations Center (EOC) is a centralized location to support multi-agency and/or multi-jurisdiction disaster response coordination and communication. It is responsible for carrying out the principles of emergency preparedness and emergency management, or disaster management functions at a strategic level in an emergency situation. EOC is responsible for the strategic overview, or "big picture", of the disaster, and does not normally directly control field assets, instead making operational decisions and leaving tactical decisions to lower commands. The common functions of all EOC's is to collect, gather and analyze data; make decisions that protect life and property, maintain continuity of the organization, within the scope of applicable laws; and disseminate those decisions to all concerned agencies and individuals.

State Disaster Response Force

 Nagaland State Disaster Management Authority (NSDMA) has raised 5 companies of State Disaster Response Force (SDRF) for the purpose of specialized response to natural and manmade disasters. The SDRF are trained from the Central Training Institute, Toluvi, Dimapur, in collaboration with Home Guard & Civil Defense, Nagaland and Police Department, Nagaland. They were drawn from five Indian Reserve Battalion namely the 9th, 11th, 13th, 14th and 15th and have been provided with emergency response equipments for effective response and operation in the event of any disaster in the state. NSDMA will be train more SDRF units, drawn from among the Nagaland Arm Police and Nagaland Village Guards.