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ODISHA

 Smart Cities of Odisha: BHUBANESWAR | RAURKELA

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about odisha state

Orissa is a state on the eastern seaboard of India, located between 170 49 and 220 36� North latitudes and between 810 36� and 870 18� East longitudes. It spreads over an area of 1,55,707 sq km. and is broadly divided into four geographical regions, i.e. Northern Plateau, Central River Basins, Eastern Hills and Coastal Plains. It has a 480 km coastline. Its population was 4,19,47,358 as per the 2011 census. Administratively, the state is divided into 30 districts, 58 sub-divisions, 314 blocks (administrative units in descending order of geographical area and population) and 103 urban local bodies. The average density of population comes to 269 per sq km. with significantly higher density in the coastal areas compared to the interior parts.

The ancient kingdom of Kalinga, which was invaded by the Mauryan emperor Ashoka in 261 BCE resulting in the Kalinga War, coincides with the modern day Odisha. The modern state of Orissa was established on 1 April 1936, as a province in British India and consisted predominantly of Oriya speaking regions. April 1 is celebrated as Odisha Day. The region is also known as Utkala and is mentioned in India's national anthem, "Jana Gana Mana". Cuttack was made the capital of the region by Anantavarman Chodaganga in c. 1135, after which the city was used as the capital by many rulers, through the British era until 1948 when Bhubaneswar replaced it as the capital.

Orissa State occupies a distinct place in our country as it represents a unique blend of unity among various castes, communities and minority groups. There are 62 Scheduled Tribe communities, each one different from the other, and 93 Scheduled Caste communities in the State. The State has the privilege of having highest number (13) of Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PTGs). Both ST & SC together constitute 38.66% of the total population of the State (ST- 22.13% and SC-16.53% as per 2001 census). The ST & SC Development and Minorities & Backward Classes Welfare Department functions as the nodal Department for the welfare and all-round development of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, Minorities and Backward Classes. The basic objective of the Department is to formulate and coordinate policies, programmes, laws, regulations etc. for economic, educational and social development of these communities. The principal aim is to empower the principal stakeholders through their educational, economic and social development in order to build self-reliance, self esteem among them

Physiography  

It is surrounded by West Bengal in the North East, Bihar in North, Andhra Pradesh on the South East, Madhya Pradesh in the West and Bay of Bengal in the East. The area is divided into two natural divisions: The Coastal Plain & North Western Plateau. Mahanadi is a very large river crosses through the state and its big delta merges into the deltas formed by the Brahmani and the Baitarani. The deltas are fertile and are provided with irrigation facilities. The state of Orissa located on the eastern coast of Indian peninsula is quite rich in natural resources and has several bio-diversity hot spot areas of the Indian subcontinent. It has varied and wide spread forests harbouring dry deciduous, moist deciduous forests as well as mangroves with several unique, endemic, rare and endangered floral and faunal species. Orissa is one of the richest bio-diversity regions in Southeast Asia.

 It has 7 major river deltas of varies sizes and shapes formed by the rivers Subarnarekha, Budhabalanga, Baitarani, Brahmani, Mahanadi, Rushikulya and Bahuda. This region has 5 major morphological zones � the coastal plains, the middle mountainous and highlands region, the central plateaus, the western rolling uplands and major flood plains. Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary (BKWS) has been designated a Ramsar site in 2002(2nd in the state). It was declared as Bhitarkanika National Park in 1988. It is located in Kendrapara district. The deltaic region is surrounded by the rivers Brahmani and Baitarani sea. The dominant vegetation type is mangrove.

The state is broadly divided into 4 Physiographic Zones namely Coastal Plains, Central Table Land, Northern Plateau and Eastern Ghats. These are further sub-divided into 10 Agroclimatic Zones namely North Western Plateau, North Central Plateau, North Eastern Coastal Plain, East and South Eastern Coastal Plain, North Eastern Ghat, Eastern Ghat High Land, South Eastern Ghat, Western Undulating Zone, Western Central Table Land and Mid Central Table Land. The state has different soil types ranging from fertile alluvial deltaic soils in the coastal plains, mixed red and black soils in the Central Table Land, red and yellow soils with low fertility in the Northern Plateau and red, black & brown forest soil in Eastern Ghat region.

 The soil types differ widely from highly acidic to slightly alkaline and from light sandy to stiff clays. The soils are mainly acidic with the degree of acidity varying widely. About 4 lakh hectares are exposed to saline inundation, 3.54 lakh hectares to flooding and 0.75 hectares to water logging.The Coastal Plains form an extensive alluvial tract lying between the Eastern Ghat hill ranges and the coast. It stretches for about 480 km and include parts of Balasore, Cuttack, Puri and Ganjam districts. The Chilka Lake, the widest lagoon in India, is a prominent coastal feature of Odisha. The Central River Basin occurs between the Northern Plateau and the Eastern Ghat hill ranges and covers parts of Bolangir, Sambalpur, Dhenkanal and Cuttack districts. It comprises the catchment areas of the major rivers of the state, viz., Mahanadi, Brahmani, Tel and Baitarani rivers and their tributaries. Though largely a peneplain, the Central River Basin is occasionally marked by isolated hills, which rise abruptly from the plains.

The Northern plateau, covering the districts of Mayurbhanj, Keonjhar, Deogarh, Sundargarh and parts of Dhenkanal, Balasore and Sambalpur, is an undulating country having a general slope from north to south. The average elevation of the plateau in the central area, forming the watershed of the Brahmani and Baitarani rivers, is about 1000 m above M.S.L. Hill ranges mark the northeastern part of the plateau with elevations above 1000 m. Notable peaks are represented by Malaygiri (1188 m) in Dhenkanal district, Mankadanacha (1117 m) in Kendujhar district and Meghasani (1166 m) in Mayurbhanj district. In the south and southwestern parts of the state, the Eastern Ghats hill ranges stretch for about 400 km in a NNE-SSW direction covering the districts of Koraput, Navrangpur, Malkanagiri, Ganjam, Kalahandi, Boudh, Phulbani and parts of Puri, Khurda, Cuttack, Dhenkanal and Bolangir districts. Most of this segment has a general elevation of ~ 900 m above M.S.L. and form the watershed of some rivers. Major hill ranges in the Eastern Ghats rise above 1500 m; the notable peaks being Deomali (1673 m) and Turiakonda (1599 m) in Koraput district and Mahendragiri (1531 m) in Ganjam district.

 

Climate

The climate of Odisha, an East Indian state that hugs the coast of the Bay of Bengal is represented by tropical monsoon weather. Searing hot summers with considerably high monsoon downpours and cool and pleasant winters mark the Odisha climate. The climate of Odisha is distinctly related to the geography of Odisha. The weather of Odisha can be classified under three heads namely, summer, monsoon and winter. The state is also endowed with relatively short stints of the refreshing spring and the mellow autumn. The scorching heat of the Odisha summer makes the mercury soars to unbearable heights. However, Monsoon soon creeps in to offer a welcome break. During monsoon, the cumulonimbus clouds unfold with driving rains that wash the terrains and unfold a rich blue sky. By early June, the southwest monsoon announces its arrival in the state and departs by the middle of October. Rainfall is the main source of water in Odisha that varies from 1200 mm to 1700 mm across the state. The average rainfall in Odisha is measured as 1482 mm. Odisha receives about 78% of rainfall between the months of June and September. Odisha receives the remaining 22% of the rainfall throughout the year. The rains also play a pivotal role in agriculture, the principal source of livelihood of the populace of Odisha

 

Soil

Soils of Orissa influenced by climate, topography and parent material are the most heterogeneous for which the average productivity of many crops is low. Identification of specific soil problems and their efficient management would accelerate the crop productivity. The soils of Odisha have been divided into 8 broad groups. Taxonomically these 8 broad groups of soil come under 4 orders of 10 sub orders and 18 great groups.

 a) Red Soil Red soil covers about 7.14 m. ha of lands and being the highest coverage of all soil groups of the state, extend to the districts of Koraput, Rayagada, Nawrangpur, Malkanagiri, Keonjhar, Ganjam, Kalahandi, Nuapada, Bolangir, Dhenkanal and Mayurbhanj. The soils are strongly to moderately acidic with low to medium organic mater status and poor water retentive capacity. These soils are deficient in nitrogen and phosphorus. Presence of excess amounts of oxides of iron imparts red colours to the soil.

Mixed red and Yellow Soil These soils occupy 5.5m ha of lands being the second highest in area. These soils occur in the district of Sambalpur, Bargarh, Deogarh, and Sundargarh. Mixed red and yellow soils occur as a catenary associations in undulating and rolling terrains which differ in depth, texture, and colour. The soils are moderately shallow in depth and coarse-textured.

b) Black Soil There are no regular occurrence of black soils in the state. These soils occur sporadically in the districts of Puri, Ganjam, Malkangiri, Kalahandi, Nuapada, Bolangir, Sonepur, Boudh, Sambalpur, Bargarh and Angul covering an area of 0.96 m. ha. of lands. The black colour of the soil is due to presence of titaniferous magnetite, humins, bitumins etc. These soils are formed due to weathering of basic rocks in the low lying areas.

c) Laterite Soil Lateritic soils occupy 0.70m. ha of lands in the districts of Puri, Khurda, Nayagarh, Cuttack, Dhenkanal, Keonjhar, Mayurbhanja and Sambalpur. Lateritic soils are characterised by compact vesicular structure and rich in hydrated oxides of iron and aluminium with small amounts of manganese, titanium and quartz. These soils are loamy sand to sandy loam in the surface having hard clay pan in the subsoil, crusting is its problem in upland literite.

d) Deltaic alluvial Those soils cover 0.67m. ha of lands and occur in the deltaic regions of the rivers such as Mahanadi, Brahamani, Baitarani, Subarnarekha and Rushikullya in the districts of Balasore, Bhadrak, Jajpur, Kendrapara, Jagatsinghpur, Cuttack, Puri, Gajapati and Ganjam. Textural class of the soil varies from coarse sand to clay and is mostly dependent on geomorphology of the flood plain and the type of alluvial material carried by river water.

 e) Coastal Saline and Alluvial Soil These soils occur along the coastal belt of the state in a narrow strip extending 5-25 km inward. The salinity occurs due to litteral deposits of esturial intrusion of brackish tidal water from sea through creeks. Nearly 0.254m ha. of saline soils are distributed in the districts of Balasore, Bhadrak Jagatsinghpur, Kendrapara, Puri, Khurda and Ganjam. Saline soils are rich in soluble salts of chloride and sulphate in conjunction with sodium and magnesium.

f) Brown Forest Soil These soils being associated with forest areas are distributed in the districts of Phulbani, Kandhamal, Rayagada and parts of Ganjam and Nayagarh and cover about 0.17 m.ha. These are brown to gray brown in colour, light texture and acidic in reaction. Organic matter and nitrogen content of the soils are medium to high.

g) Mixed red and black soil These soils occur as association of both red and black soil together in which black soil occurs in patches within the predominant red soil. The red and black soils are so intermixed that red soils are found in upper ridges whereas, black soils occur in lower ridges. The soil occupies about 0.16 m. ha of lands in the western districts of Sambalpur, Bargarh, Sonepur and Bolangir.

 

Socio-Economic conditions

 Nearly 85% of its population live in rural areas and depend mostly on agriculture for their livelihood. The state has abundant mineral resources including precious and semi-precious stones. It has also plentiful water resources. The total cultivable land is nearly 65.59 lakh hectares. Orissa is the tenth largest state in area and eleventh in population in the country, accounting for 5% of the geographical area and 4% of the population of the country. Cultivators and Agricultural labourers constitute 65% of the total workforce. Agriculture provides direct or indirect employment to 65% of the total work force and contributes 26% of the net state domestic product.

 

Agriculture

The state has a cultivated area of 62 lakh hectares out of which 27 lakh hectares is high land, 19 lakh hectares medium and 16 lakh hectares low land. The paddy area during kharif is about 42 lakh & during Rabi 2.5 lakh hectares. Kharif is the main cropping season and rice is the principal crop during kharif season. Cropping during Rabi season is mainly confined to irrigated areas and areas with residual moisture. Other important crops produced in the state are pulses (Arhar, Mung, Biri, Kulthi), Oil seeds (Groundnut, Til, Mustard and Niger), Fibres (Jute, Mesta, Cotton), Sugarcane, Vegetables and Spices, Mango, Banana, Coconut & Cashew Nut are the main Horticultural crops of the state. Due to frequent occurrence of these natural calamities there is always reduction in kharif rice production. Similarly in drought years there is considerable loss in production of pulses and oilseed crops during Rabi season and kharif season. Another problem in the state is operational household along with poverty line.

The average size of the holding is only 1-3 hectares out of cultivable area of 65-99 lakh hectares, about 41% is under irrigated conditions. The total irrigation potential created so far from all sources is about 39.31 lakh hectares (kharif 26.65 lakh and rabi 12.66 lakh hectares). The gross irrigated cropped area is 27 lakh hectares. Total geographical area of the state is 155.71 lakh hectares out of which 58.13 lakh hectares is forest area, 4.82 lakh hectares of miscellaneous tree & groves, 4.43 lakh hectares of permanent pasture, 3.92 lakh hectares culturable waste land and 8.43 lakh hectares barren & unculturable land. The State has a cultivated area of 62 lakh hectares out of which 27 lakh hectares is high land, 19 lakh hectares medium and 16 lakh hectares low land.

 

ECONOMY

 Macro-economic trend
Odisha is experiencing steady economic growth. The state has shown impressive growth in gross state domestic product. This has been reported by the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation. Odisha's growth rate of the state is above the national average.This is a chart of trend of gross state domestic product of Odisha at market prices estimated by the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation with figures in millions of Indian rupees.

Industrial Growth

Odisha has abundant natural resources and a large coastline. Odisha has emerged as the most preferred destination for overseas investors with investment proposals.[84] It contains a fifth of India's coal, a quarter of its iron ore, a third of its bauxite reserves and most of the chromite. Rourkela Steel Plant[85] was the first integrated steel plant in the public sector in India, built with collaboration of Germany. It is the home to public sector enterprises like HAL, Sunabeda (Koraput), NALCO (Anugul in Angul District, Damanjodi in Koraput). Odisha receives unprecedented investments in steel, aluminium, power, refineries and ports. India's topmost IT consulting firms, including Mahindra Satyam, TCS (Tata Consultancy Services), Mindtree, PricewaterhouseCoopers and Infosys have large branches in Odisha. IBM, Syntel and Wipro are setting up development centres in Odisha. So far, two of the S&P CNX 500 conglomerates have corporate offices in Odisha, for example, National Aluminium (2005 gross income ₹.51,162 million) and Tata Sponge Iron (2005 gross income ₹.2,044 million).
Odisha is notable as one of the first Indian states to have tackled its structural problems during the post-1994 Indian economic reforms. Odisha was also the first state in India to begin to privatise its electricity transmission and distribution businesses. Between 1994 and 2000 Odisha's former state electricity board (SEB) was restructured to form Gridco. This corporation was then divided into Transco and a collection of distribution companies. Attempts were then made to sell the distribution companies to the private sector. Like many other states, in 1996 Odisha was losing over 50% of the electricity it was delivering. The scale and importance of these reforms is notable and an important milestone in India's dramatic economic development.
Recently the number of companies who have signed memoranda of understanding (MoUs) to set up steel plants in the state has gone up to 50, including POSCO of South Korea which has agreed to construct a mammoth $12 billion steel plant near Paradip port, named POSCO India. It would be the largest single investment in India's history. Arcelor-Mittal has also announced plans to invest in another mega steel project amounting to $10 billion. Russian major Magnitogorsk Iron and Steel Company (MMK) plans to set up a 10 MT steel plant in Odisha, too. The state is attracting an unprecedented amount of investment in aluminium, coal-based power plants, petrochemicals, and information technology as well. In power generation, Reliance Power (Anil Ambani Group) is putting up the world's largest power plant with an investment of US $13 billion at Hirma in Jharsuguda district. Vedanta Resources� 1.4 million tonne alumina project in Kalahandi district is the largest investment in aluminium. Vedanta has also announced a $3.2 billion huge private University project on the lines of major American universities, which is unprecedented in the history of education in India. Bandhabahal is a major area of open cast coal mines.
The central government has agreed to accord SEZ (Special Economic Zone) status to eight sites in Odisha, among which are Infocity at Bhubaneshwar and Paradip. But all these plans are facing massive resistance from the people of the state who mainly depend on agriculture for their livelihood.
In the year 2009 Odisha was the second top domestic investment destination with Gujarat first and Andhra Pradesh in third place according to an analysis of ASSOCHAM Investment Meter (AIM) study on corporate investments. Odisha's share was 12.6 percent in total investment in the country. It received investment proposal worth ₹. 2,00,846 crore during the last year. Steel and power were among the sectors which attracted maximum investments in the state.
Flood and cyclone are the major hurdles in Odisha's development as the important districts are situated near to the Bay of Bengal. In the five-year period between 2004 and 2005 and 2008�09, Odisha's GDP has grown by a stunning 8.74% way beyond the definition of 7% growth. It should be noted that the all-India growth during this period was 8.49%. In this period, Odisha was the fourth fastest growing state, just behind Gujarat, Bihar, Uttarakhand.

Infrastructure development
Paradip Port on the Bay of Bengal is one of the major port on the east coast of India, the coastal towns of Dhamra and Gopalpur are also two of the other ports in Odisha. The government of India has selected the coastal region of Odisha, stretching from Paradip in the north to Gopalpur in the south, to be developed into one of five or six Special Economic Regions (SERs) of the country. The government of India and the state government of Odisha are working together to erect world-class infrastructure in this region to match that of Rotterdam, Houston, and Pudong. This is aimed at further private investment in petrochemicals, steel, and manufacturing. A recent Morgan Stanley report forecasts that Odisha would be flooded with massive investments for manufacturing related activities in the same manner that Bangalore had attracted software investment in the 1990s. The scale of the investments in Odisha would, however, be much higher.

As of July 2006, total planned investment in the state was $90 billion. This includes investment in research, education, hospitals, roads, ports, airports, and hotels. There are many multi-state irrigation projects in development, including the Godavari River Basin Irrigation Projects. 14 locations have been identified on Odisha's coast to be developed as ports: Gopalpur (Ganjam district), Bahuda Muhan (Sonepur) in Ganjam district, Palur (Ganjam), Bali Harchandi (Puri), Astaranga (Puri), Jatadhari Muhan (Jagatsinghpur), Barunei Muhan (Kendrapara), Dhamra (Bhadrak), Chudamani (Bhadrak), Inchuri (Balasore), Chandipur (Balasore), Bahabalpur (Balasore), Subarnarekha mouth (Kirtania) in Balasore district and Talsara (Balasore). Most of them have already been developing as ports in the public private partnership (PPP).

 

TRANSPORT

AIR

Odisha has a total of 17 airstrips and 16 helipads. The Government of Odisha have announced to develop an airport at Jharsuguda, making it a full-fledged domestic airport. Five greenfield airports were also to be upgraded at Rayagada, Paradip, Dhamra, Angul and Kalinganagar in an effort to boost intra-State and inter-State civil aviation. Existing aerodromes at Gopalpur, Jharsuguda, Barbil and Rourkela were also to be upgraded.Air Odisha, is Odisha's sole air charter company based in Bhubaneswar.

SEAPORTS
1.Port of Dhamara
2.Port of Gopalpur
3.Port of Paradip

RAILWAYS
Major cities of Odisha are well connected to all the major cities of India by direct daily trains and weekly trains. Most of the railway network in Odisha lies under the jurisdiction of the East Coast Railway (ECoR) with headquarters at Bhubaneswar and some parts under South Eastern Railway and South East Central Railway.

 

CINEMA

The cinema of Odisha is famous throughout India and growing every year by a large margin as people are liking Ollywood movies now. After the first Oriya film Sita Bibaha in 1936, only two films were produced till 1951. A joint consortium of landlords and businessmen who collected funds after 1948 produced those two movies. Sita Bibaha was directed by Mohan Sunder Dev Goswami and was released in Laxmi Theatre, Puri. The 1951 production Roles to Eight was the first Oriya film with an English name. It was released after 15 years after Sita Bibaha. It was the fourth Oriya film produced by Ratikanta Padhi. The eleventh Oriya film Sri Lokenath was the first Oriya film that got a National Award in 1960; it was directed by Prafulla Sengupta.
One of the major trailblazers and pioneers of the Oriya film industry were Gour Prasad Ghose and his wife, Parbati Ghose. They introduced and mastered innovative ways of technical storytelling. Over the years, some of their most notable films such as Maa and Kaa brought them national fame and numerous awards, including many National and lifetime achievement awards for their contribution to cinema as directors, producers and actors.
The same year, Prasant Nanda won a National Award as best actor for Nua Bou, his debut film. The name of Prasant Nanda always comes up when dealing with the Oriya film industry. He was present in Oriya films since 1939, but he became active only after 1976. Nanda served Ollywood as an actor, director, screenplay writer, lyricist and even as a playback singer. Such a versatile genius is quite rare in Indian cinema history. Nanda alone carried Oriya films into the national honour list by winning National Awards three times in 1960, 1966 and 1969 for his acting in Nua Bou, Matira Manisha and Adina Megha.
Uttam Mohanty, whose debut film Abhiman won accolades all over, is now the veteran actor of the Oriya film industry. His wife Aparajita Mohanty is a renowned actress. Sarat Pujari was one of the most popular actors of the 1960s. His popular films are Nua Bou, Jeevan Sathi, Sadhana, Manika Jodi, Naba Janma, Matira Manisa, Arundhati, Ghara Sansara, Bhookha, etc. His films portrayed the general condition of the state of Odisha with a strong social message. Sarat Pujari is a prominent figure. Apart from being an actor, he was also a successful director and an academician. He continues to act in a few select films; he is enjoying his retired life and writes columns in the newspapers as his hobby. Raju Mishra is another rising star in Oriya film industry. He is an international award-winning photographer, director, choreographer and lyricist of Ollywood. Other well-known actors are Bijay Mohanty, Sriram Panda, Mihir Das, Siddhanta Mahapatra, Mahasweta Ray, Tandra Ray and Anubhav Mohanty.

 

TOURISAM

Odisha is mainly known for its rich culture and the enormous number of ancient temples. The temples of Odisha conform to the Indo Aryan Nagara style of architecture, with distinctive features specific to this region. The best known of these are the Lingaraja Temple at Bhubaneswar, Jagannath Temple, Puri and the Konark Sun Temple. The temples of Odisha exhibit a majestic grandeur. An Oriya temple (deula) usually consists of a sanctum, one or several front porches (Jagamohana) usually with pyramidal roofs, a dancing hall (nata mandira) and a hall of offerings (bhog mandira).
The Lingaraja Temple at Bhubaneswar has a 150-foot (46 m) high deula while the Jagannath Temple, Puri is about 200 feet (61 m) high and dominates the skyline. Only a portion of the Konark Sun Temple, the largest of the temples of the "Holy Golden Triangle" exists today, and it is still staggering in size. It stands out as a masterpiece in Odisha architecture. Maa Sarala Temple at Tirtol town is also one of the holiest place in Odisha & a major tourist attraction.
Odisha is also well known for its Buddhist and Jain pilgrimage destinations. Northeast of Cuttack, about 10 km (6 mi) from Bhubaneswar, there are Buddhist relics and ruins at the three hilltop complexes of Udayagiri and Khandagiri Caves, which bear witness to Buddhism's fruitful tryst with this region until well into the 13th century. There is Dhauli with a large statue of Buddha which brings international Buddhist tourists to Odisha.[citation needed]
Odisha's varying topography � from the wooded Eastern Ghats to the fertile river basin � has proven ideal for evolution of compact and unique ecosystems. This creates treasure troves of flora and fauna that are inviting to many migratory species of birds and reptiles. Bhitarkanika National Park is famous for its second largest mangrove ecosystem. The bird sanctuary in Chilika Lake (Asia's largest brackish water lake) and the tiger reserve and waterfalls in Simlipal National Park are integral parts eco-tourism in Odisha, arranged by Odisha Tourism.Daringbadi, known as "Kashmir of Odisha," is a hill station in the Kandhamal district of Odisha.
The Gharial Sanctuary at Tikarpada and the olive ridley sea turtles in Gahirmatha Turtle Sanctuary are on the list of avid nature watchers. The city wildlife sanctuaries of Chandaka and Nandankanan Zoological Park are must-visit sites for the lessons they teach in conservation and revitalisation of species from the brink of extinction.
Odisha is blessed with around 500 km (311 mi) long coastline and has some of the most beautiful beaches in the world. Chilika lake provides a haven for millions of birds and is one of the few places in India where one can view dolphins. The lush green forest cover of Odisha plays host to a wide variety of flora and fauna, including the famed royal Bengal tiger. Amidst the picturesque hills and valleys nestle breathtaking waterfalls and rivulets that attract visitors from all over. Odisha beaches include Chandipur Beach, Gopalpur-on-Sea, Konark Beach, Astaranga Beach, Talsari Beach, Pata Sonapur Beach, Satpada Beach, Baleshwar Beach, Paradeep Beach, Satabhaya Beach, Gahirmatha Beach, Puri Beach, Ramachandi Beach, Malud Beach, Baliharachandi Beach etc

 

INSTITUTIONAL SETUP

Orissa State Disaster Mitigation Authority (OSDMA)

 Orissa State Disaster Mitigation Authority (OSDMA) was set up by the Government of Orissa as an autonomous organization vide Finance Department Resolution No. IFC- 74/99-51779/F dated the 28th December 1999 (in the intermediate aftermath of the Super-cyclone in 1999). It was registered under the Societies Registration Act, 1860 on 29.12.1999 as a non-profit making & charitable institution for the interest of the people of Orissa, with its headquarters at Bhubaneswar and jurisdiction over the whole State. The Department of Revenue is the administrative department of OSDMA vide Revenue Department Resolution No.39373/R dated 26th August 2000. Subsequently, the name of the Authority was changed from Orissa State Disaster Mitigation Authority to Orissa State Disaster Management Authority (OSDMA) vide Revenue & Disaster Management Department Resolution No. 42317/R&DM dated 27th September, 2008.

Odisha Disaster Rapid Action Force (ODRAF) 

Five Orissa Disaster Rapid Action Force (ODRAF) units have been set up at Cuttack, Chatrapur, Balasore, Jharsuguda and Koraput to assist the civil Administration at the time of calamities to clear relief lines, take up search & rescue operations and help in management of disasters. The ODRAF units have been carved out of the Orissa State Armed Police (OSAP) Battalions and the Armed Police Reserve (APR) of District Police. Mock drills have been conducted involving ODRAF, State Fire Service, National Disaster Response Force (NDRF), State Port Organisation and Community Volunteers for better coordination among the stakeholders for effective management of disasters.

Strengthening of Emergency Operation Centres (EOC)

Multi-hazard resistant Emergency Operations Centre (EOC) buildings have been constructed at 16 District headquarters and the State level EOC has been set up in the Cell Office of SRC at Rajiv Bhawan.

State Disaster Management Policy (SDMP)

In the context of proclamation of International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR), National initiatives and State�s own experience, the State Govt. felt it necessary to have a specific policy for disaster management and to provide necessary guidelines on all aspects of emergency management. The focus of the Disaster Management Policy shall be on total risk management and vulnerability reduction by strengthening the physical infrastructure as well as bio-physical, psychological, social and economic status of the people and to make the people increasingly disaster resilient as well. Revenue Department of the State will be the administrative department for disaster management under the general guidance and supervision of the Government. The OSDMA will play a coordinating role in the pre-disaster and post-disaster phases, while Special Relief Organization will play the lead role during the response phase.

Disaster Risk Management (DRM) Programme

DRM programme was implemented in 155 disaster prone blocks spread over 16 districts of Angul, Balasore, Bhadrak, Cuttack, Ganjam (Part), Jajpur, Jagatsinghpur, Kendrapada, Khordha, Keonjhar (Part), Koraput, Mayurbhanj (Part), Nuapada, Puri, Rayagada and Sambalpur. Under the programme, Disaster Management Committees were formed at district and block level. Members of Block Disaster Management Committees were trained.

Urban Earthquake Vulnerability Reduction Programme (UEVRP)

 Govt. of India-UNDP Urban Earthquake Vulnerability Reduction Project (UEVRP), a component of the Government of India UNDP Disaster Risk Management (DRM) programme was implemented in Bhubaneswar, Cuttack and Sambalpur cities. These urban areas come under the Earthquake Risk Zone-III i.e. moderate damage risk zone as per the earthquake risk zonation map prepared by Bureau of Indian Standards and published by Building Material Technology Promotion Council of India (BMTPC). For smooth implementation of the programme, City Disaster Management Committee (CDMC) had been constituted under the chairmanship of Revenue Divisional Commissioner. City Awareness Committee (CAC) under the chairmanship of Municipal Commissioner/ Executive Officer and City Enforcement Committee (CEC) under the leadership of Vice Chairman of the local development authority had also been constituted in each programme city to support the CDMC in implementation of different activities under the programme.

National Programme for Capacity Building of Engineers in Earthquake Risk Management (NPCBEERM)

The Government of India sponsored NPCBEERM programme was implemented in the state for capacity building of serving as well as privately practising Engineers in earthquake resistant design and construction practices. Four government engineering colleges i.e. (i) National Institute of Technology(NIT), Rourkela, (ii) University College of Engineering(UCE), Burla, (iii) Indira Gandhi Institute of Technology (IGIT), Sarang and (iv) College of Engineering and Technology (CET), Bhubaneswar have been identified as State Resource Institutes (SRI) for imparting capacity building training to the Engineers.

National Programme for Capacity Building of Architects in Earthquake Risk Management (NPCBAERM)

Government of India sponsored NPCBAERM programme was implemented in the state for capacity building of serving as well as privately practising Architects in earthquake resistant design and construction practices. National Institute of Disaster Management (NIDM), New Delhi was the nodal agency for implementation of the project at national level. OSDMA monitors implementation of the project at the state level. Two institutions i.e. (i) Department of Architecture, College of Engineering and Technology (CET), Bhubaneswar and (ii) Piloo Modi College of Architecture, Cuttack are declared as State Resource Institutes (SRI) for imparting capacity building training to the Architects.

National Cyclone Risk Mitigation Project (NCRMP)

The National Cyclone Risk Mitigation Project (NCRMP) is proposed to be implemented in 13 States and Union Territories including Orissa with assistance from Government of India and the World Bank. Orissa State Disaster Management Authority (OSDMA) has been identified as the Nodal Agency for implementation of the project. The project will be implemented in the coastal districts of Balasore, Bhadrak, Kendrapara, Jagatsinghpur, Puri & Ganjam and parts or Khurda adjoining the Chilika Lake