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Punjab is situated in the northwest India. The Indian state borders the Pakistani province of Punjab to the west, Jammu and Kashmir to the north, Himachal Pradesh to the northeast, Chandigarh to the east, Haryana to the south and southeast and Rajasthan to the southwest. The total area of the state is 50,362 square kilometers. The population is 2,77,04,236 (Census, 2011). Punjab's capital is Chandigarh, which is administered separately as a Union Territory since it is also the capital of neighboring Haryana. Other major cities of Punjab include Mohali, Ludhiana, Amritsar, Patiala and Jalandhar.

PUnjab, is a state in North India, forming part of the larger Punjab region. The state is bordered by the Indian states of Jammu and Kashmir to the north, Himachal Pradesh to the east, Haryana to the south and southeast, Rajasthan to the southwest, and the Pakistani province of Punjab to the west. The state capital is located in Chandigarh, a Union Territory and also the capital of the neighbouring state of Haryana. The summer residence of the Governor of Punjab is at Shimla. Punjab is the only state in India with a majority Sikh population.

Agriculture is the largest industry in Punjab. Other major industries include the manufacturing of scientific instruments, agricultural goods, electrical goods, financial services, machine tools, textiles, sewing machines, sports goods, starch, tourism, fertilisers, bicycles, garments, and the processing of pine oil and sugar. Punjab also has the largest number of steel rolling mill plants in India, which are located in "Steel Town"�Mandi Gobindgarh in the Fatehgarh Sahib district.
After the partition of India in 1947, the Punjab province of British India was divided between India and Pakistan. The Indian Punjab was divided in 1966 with the formation of the new states of Haryana and Himachal Pradesh alongside the current state of Punjab.
The term Punjab comprises two words: "punj meaning five and ab meaning water, thus the land of five rivers. The Greeks referred to Punjab as Pentapotamia, an inland delta of five converging rivers. In Avesta, the sacred text of Zoroastrians, the Punjab region is associated with the ancient hapta həndu or Sapta Sindhu, the Land of Seven Rivers

Administrative Set-Up

Punjab has twenty two districts each under the administrative control of a District Collector. The districts are subdivided into 79 Tehsils, which are under the administrative control of a Tehsildar. Each Tehsil consists of blocks which are total 143 in number. The blocks consist of revenue villages and the total number of revenue villages in the state is 12,278. Apart from these there are 22 Zila Parishads, 136 Municipal Committees and 22 Improvement Trusts looking after 143 towns and 14 cities of Punjab.



The total geographical area of the state is 50,362 sq. kms. As per Census 2011, Punjab has a total population of 2,77,04,236 out of which 1,46,34,819 are males and 1,30,69,417 are females. It constitutes 2.29% of total population of India. Population density of Punjab is 550 persons per


The area of Punjab can be divided into three regions which are the following:

Malwa is a region of Punjab and parts of Haryana between the Sutlej and Yamuna rivers. People of Malwa are known for being great fighters, and warriors. The Malwa area makes up majority of the Punjab region consisting 11 districts. Cities such as Ludhiana, Patiala, Bhatinda and Mohali located in the Malwa region,

Majha is a historical region of the Indian Punjab comprising the modern districts of Amritsar, Gurdaspur and Tarn Taran. It lies between two of the five great rivers of the Punjab: the Ravi and the Sutlej.

Doaba is the region of Indian Punjab surrounded by the rivers Beas and Sutlej. The name "Doaba" literally translates to "land of two rivers" ("Do" two, "Ab" river; Punjabi). It is one of the most fertile regions of the world, and was the centre of the Green Revolution in India. To this day, it remains one of the largest per capita producers of wheat in the world. The biggest cities in Doaba are Jalandhar, Hoshiarpur, Adampur, Nawansher and Phagwara.


Socio Economic Profile :-

Punjab is unarguably one of the most wonderful states in India with regards to the climate. The state has fabulous weather throughout the year which is also conducive for the growth of a variety of crops. The state has seen a lot of ups and downs during the years of freedom struggle and has developed to be one of the strongest states in India with respect to the economical conditions. Some of the most influential and powerful leaders of the country have emerged from this state and the current Prime Minister of the country also hails from the state of Punjab. The state of Punjab is the highest producer of Wheat in the country and a huge percentage of the country's army is represented by the wonderful state of Punjab.

The Population of Punjab according to the 2011 census stands at about 27 million, making it the 15th most populated state in India. The state is spread over an area of about 50000 sq. km. making it the 19th largest state in the country in terms of area. The density of population per sq. Km. is about 550 which is inevitable given the opportunities of growth and development in the state. The state has a growth rate of about 13% which is below the national average of 17%. The population of the state is rising considerably due to rapid efforts towards development and progress. The literacy rate in the state is about 73% a figure that has improved tremendously in the last few years due to the consistent efforts of the government. The sex ratio in Punjab leaves a lot to be desired as it lags behind the national average by a lot of points. The statistics in the Punjab Census 2011 reveal facts that can be instrumental in planning for a better development plan for the state.


Soils :-

There are many different classifications of soils of Punjab by different sources. The layman does not easily understand the soil taxonomy classification. What follows is the simple texture based soil classification on the basis of texture, climate, topography and denudation process. The soils of Punjab have been classified into the following major types:

 Flood Plain or Bet Soils

 Loamy Soils

 Sandy Soils

 Desert Soils

 Kandi Soils

 Sierozems

 Grey- Brown Podzolic & Forest Soils

 Sodic and Saline Soils


Climate and Rainfall:-

The climate of Punjab is mainly influenced by the Himalayas in the north and the Thar Desert in the south and south-west. The periodic circulation of the moist air masses from the south-east and north-western sectors decides the occurrence of two wet periods each followed by a dry period. The presence of Himalayas in the north greatly modifies the temperature. As the distance from the Himalayas increases the temperature also increases, whereas rainfall decreases.

In general, summers are hot and winters are cool. The state experiences three distinct seasons, the hot season from April to June, the rainy season from July to September and the winter season extending from October to March. The highest temperature (between 44.2� and 44.7� C) in the state is recorded in the month of June and the lowest (between 0� and 2.2�C) in December. The mean annual rainfall is 705 mm, which varies from 1200 mm at Pathankot to less than 300 mm at Abohar, representing wettest and driest stations, respectively. The major part of the rainfall occurs between the months of July and September, and is essential for growing Kharif crops and subsequent sowing of rabi crops. Hence the climate of the state is dominantly semi-arid and monsoon type.

The soil moisture regimes are udic, ustic and aridic and the soil temperature regime is mainly hyperthermic. Temperature: Day temperatures are more or less uniform over the plains except during winter and monsoon season. In general the night temperature is lower in higher altitudes except during the post monsoon when they are more or less uniform. June is the hottest month with mean maximum temperature of 410 C in plains and with 2 to 50 lower temperatures at elevated places. Highest temperature recorded in the plains is 450. January is the coldest month with mean minimum temperature for the state on a whole is 5.50C, varying from 40 to 50C in the west to 60 to 70 C in the east. Both maximum and minimum temperature rise from January till June. Rainfall:

State receives about 648.8 mm of average annual rainfall. 75% of which is received during monsoon months from July to Sept. July and August are rainiest months. Rainfall in the state varies from 26 cm in extreme southwest parts to 72 cm in extreme southern parts and varies from 42 cm in southern parts to 13.5 cm over northern parts. Districts north of Gurdaspur constitute the area of maximum rainfall and districts southwest of Ferozepur receive minimum amount of rainfall. These districts represent lowest and highest rainfall in the state.