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Sikkim is situated between 270 04' to 280 07 North latitudes and 880 01to 880 55 East longitudes. It is bound by Nepal in the west, by the vast stretches of the Tibetan plateau in the North and by Bhutan and Chumbi Valley of Tibet in the east. Darjeeling district of West Bengal stretches along its southern boundary. The State of Sikkim has a total area of 7096 sq. km. and is stretched over 112 kms from North to South and 64 kms from East to West.
The Govenment of India has given only one Smart city for Sikkim
Sikkim is divided into four districts � East district, West district, North district and South district with district headquarters at Gangtok, Geyzing, Mangan and Namchi respectively. The District administration is headed by District Collector/District Magistrate and supported by Additional District Collector. Sub-divisional Officers as supporting magistrates and the heads of respective departments. The District Collector is responsible for maintenance of law and order, magistrate for various cases and is the chairman of district coordinating committee to monitor the functioning of all other departments as well.
Sikkim-Darjeeling Himalayas are Techno-stratigraphically defined by four domains with characteristic stratigraphic and structural attributes. From south to north they are:
i. Foot hill belt
ii. Inner Belt
iii. Axial Belt and
iv. Trans-Axial Belt.
The state is mostly covered by Precambrian metamorphites of low to medium grade (Daling Group), high grade gneisses (Darjeeling Gneiss and Kanchendzonga Gneiss), Chungthang Formation (quartzite, calc-silicate rocks, marbles, graphite schist�s and occasionally amphibolites) with intrusive granites (Lingtse granite gneiss) and Phanerezoic rocks including Gondwana and Tethyan sedimentaries. The Paleozoic and Mesozoic (Tethyan) sequence in the northern and north-western part of Sikkim are fossileferous.
An examination of available rainfall data shows that the mean annual rainfall is minimum at Thangu (82 mm/) in north Sikkim and maximum at Gangtok (3494 mm/) in east Sikkim. An isohyetal analysis of this data reveals that there are two maximum rainfall areas: (i) South- East quadrant, including Mangan, Singhik, Dikchu,Gangtok and Rongli (ii) South- West quadrant, including Hilley. In between these two regions, there is a low rainfall region (e.g. Namchi). Rainfall in this area is about half of that in the former areas. There is an area in north - west Sikkim which gets very little rainfall (even less than 4.9 mm/). This area is mainly snow-covered mountains. Rainfall is heavy and well distributed during the months of May to early October. July is the wettest month in most places. The intensity of rainfall during south - west monsoon season decreases from south to north, while the distribution of winter rainfall is in the opposite order. The highest annual rainfall for individual stations may exceed 5000 mm/ and average number of rainy days (days with rain of 2.5 mm/ of more) range from 100 at Thangu to 184 at Gangtok.
The agro-climatic classification is nothing but an extension of the climate classification keeping in view the suitability to agriculture. Earlier many methods have been devised for climatic classification and the most widely used classifications being Koeppen�s and Thronghwaite�s. Generally, the climate types may be distinguished on the rainfall, temperature and as these two characteristics are influenced by altitude, the climate can also be classified on the basis of above three parameters. National Commission on Agriculture (1971) classified the country into 127 agro-climatic zones. The Planning Commission has adopted Agricultural Zones on the various parameters for agricultural planning.
Socio Economic Profile
The state of Sikkim enveloped by the Himalayas, is home to one of the world's highest peaks, Kanchenjunga, and as with most of the Himalayan region, Sikkim is rich in bio-diversity and natural beauty, making it a sought after tourist destination. Sikkim draws its culture from its neighbors which are Nepal, Bhutan, and Tibet, and many dialects are spoken here. The cuisine, music and other recreational activities like festivals are also influenced by Sikkim's bordermates. The Sikkim census of 2011 says population of Sikkim is the least in all of India. This thinly populated state has a population of mere 6 lakh, and has grown by approximately one lakh since the last census.
Sikkim State Disaster Management Authority (SSDMA) : Sikkim State Disaster Management Authority (SSDMA) is a part of the State Government and is a nodal institution for planning, co-ordination and monitoring for disaster prevention, mitigation, preparedness and management. SSDMA lays down policies on disaster management for the state. It approves disaster management plan in accordance with the guidelines laid down by National Authority and co-ordinates its implementation. It provides guidelines and reviews the measures being taken for mitigation, capacity building and preparedness by the Government and issue guidelines as necessary. SSDMA recommends provision of funds for mitigation and preparedness measures.
Sikkim Manipal Institute of Technology, Majitar, East Sikkim and Sikkim Manipal Institute of Medical Science, Tadong, East Sikkim Sikkim: Manipal Institute of Technology provides various training opportunities. It also provides quality education and training at various levels and has also introduced course related to disaster management. The two years distance learning Master of Science (M.Sc.) Degree in Disaster Mitigation is conducted to meet the demand of the growing needs of experts in the fields of Disaster Mitigation, Hydrological, Coastal, Marine, Atmospheric, Geological, Technical, Forests, Wind and Water Driven Disasters for mitigating the effects of earthquakes, floods, droughts, cyclonic storms, landslides, avalanches etc
District Institute of Education and Training (DIET) and Teachers Training Institute (TTI): The National Policy on Education 1986 contemplated a district level Institution for education and training of teachers in all districts in the country. The Programme of Action (POA) for NPE 1986 envisaged that there would be a three tier Teacher Education and Research and Training Institute on the lines of NCERT �SCERT and DIET at the National, State and District levels. Since 1998, the Teacher Training Institute has been upgraded as the (DIET). The TTI/DIET continues to run the In-Service Training for teachers of Sikkim on a regular basis.
State Institute of Rural Development (SIRD): The State Institute of Rural Development located at Jorethang, South Sikkim is the apex training institute under the Rural Management and Development Department, Government of Sikkim for imparting training to government officials, elected Panchayats and Zilla Parishad representatives and voluntary agency activists in tribal and community development. It also develops necessary training curriculum for different training programmes and provides leadership and guidance to other training institutes in the state. It conducts research studies and assists in organizing offcampus programmes, seminars, workshops and conferences in collaboration with the Government and other organizations. SIRD also has Disaster Management Faculty and has created TOT as Field Facilitators for providing disaster management training to the PRIs, NGOs in Blocks, Gram Panchayat and village levels including schools under the block. SIRD provides training on various aspects of Disaster Management to all stakeholders with the help of resource person from various institutes and SSDMA.
National Informatics Centre (NIC) The National Informatics Centre (NIC) has facilities like VSAT-based video conferencing; Internet connectivity from NITPU centre, four Pentium servers, Pentium running GIS applications etc. The NIC situated at State Secretariat Gangtok also has VSAT and Internet facilities, one Pentium server and six Pentium systems. NIC has setup district and Sub-Divisional Centre functional with Pentium servers, VSAT facility. The services of NIC will be harnessed to strengthen the communication and information database systems related to disaster management at the State and district levels.
Capacity Building Institute, Karfectar, South Sikkim The aim of capacity building institute is to make every citizen of the state self reliant. State government has started this institute to strengthen the knowledge base and behavior of an individual in a sustainable way. The institute provides training to people from all aspects of life. It also provides training in all subjects concerning Disaster Management.
Police Training Centre: Pipalay, South Sikkim Police Training Centre provides training for police, Sikkim Fire Services, Home Guard and Civil Defence, Sikkim Armed Police, State Disaster Response Force, Forest Guard and the DM teams constituted under disaster risk management. The Police training centre has been fully equipped with Disaster Management Equipments.
District Disaster Management: Authority District Disaster Management Authorities (DDMAs) headed by the District Collector or District Magistrate or Deputy Commissioner as the case may be, to spearhead and adopt a holistic and integrated approach to DM. There will be a paradigm shift, from the erstwhile relief-centric response to a proactive prevention, mitigation and preparedness-driven approach for conserving developmental gains and to minimize loss of life, livelihood and property.
State Emergency Operation Centre - SEOC has a small permanent cadre staff and a continuous Duty Officer system to monitor events within the State on behalf of the State Authority. When activated in support of disaster-affected communities, the SEOC establishes communication with relevant DEOC for the purpose of coordinating necessary information and resource support. The SEOC provides 'situational awareness' of disaster events to the State Government and is accountable to the State Executive Committee.
District Emergency operation Centre - DEOC may be permanent or temporary facilities provided within each District to support the District Authority during disaster events. Each DEOC is responsible to provide prompt and relevant information to both LEOCs and the SEOC concerning any disaster event occurring within their District. These centres are also responsible for the coordination of all local and state resources within their district and those allocated to it for disaster management purposes.
Local Emergency Operation Centre - LEOC may be permanent or temporary facilities provided within each local government area or combined local government area to support the local committee during disasters. Each LEOC is responsible to provide prompt and relevant information to the DEOC concerning any disaster event or potential disaster event occurring within their area. These centres are also responsible for the coordination of all local resources as well as those allocated to it for disaster management purposes.
Civil Defense The government of India has been providing fund under the scheme �Revamping of Civil Defense Setup in the state. Under this scheme the state has so far conducted trainings and renovations etc. It has also got plans for the construction of a Civil Defense Institute in the State for which a piece of land measuring 5-8 acres of land is required.
Quick Response Teams (QRTs): The QRTs at district level should leave for the affected site within 3 to 6 hours of the event after the declaration of emergency. They have been adequately briefed by their respective departments. Team should be self-sufficient in terms of resources, equipments, survival kits and response work