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Chennai fromally knowns as Madras is the capital city of the Indian state of the Tamil Nadu and a metropolitan city. With an aerial spread of 174 km2. it is one of the fastest growing cities in the world, and is located on the southeast coast of India. Chennai boasts of one of the longest natural beaches in the world called the Marina Beach that runs along the shoreline of the city. Chennai has a tropical climate, specifically a tropical wet and dry climate. The city lies on the thermal equator and is also on the coast, which prevents extreme variation in seasonal temperature. The hottest part of the year is late May to early June, with maximum temperatures around 38-42 -C (100-108 F). The coolest part of the year is January, with minimum temperatures around 18-20 -C (64-68 -F). Early March would be warm at 25 - 32 �C (75 - 90 �F), but still manageable. The average annual rainfall in Chennai is about 140 cm (55 in), and gets most of it during October-- December from the north-east monsoon winds. The state of Tamil Nadu, especially especially its awe-inspiring inspiring temples, temples, is the repository repository of the best of Dravidian Dravidian Culture, Culture, and Chennai show cases all of it in splendid manner to the visitors.
� More than 400 years old and is the 36th metropolitan city across the world
� 31st largest urban area in the world Detroit of India because of its automobile industry
� 2nd largest IT Exporter in India
� Only city in South Asia to figure in the 52 places to go around the world by The New York Times
� Leading tourism guide Lonely Planet named Chennai as one of the top ten cities in the world to visit in 2015
NAME OF CHENNAI CITY The name of Chennai is a shortened form of Chennapattanam, the name of the town that grew around Fort St. George, which was built by the English in 1639. There are two versions about the origin of the name Chennapattanam: according to one version, Chennapattanam was named after the Telugu ruler Damarla Venkatadri Nayakudu, from whom the English acquired the town in1639. The first official use of the name Chennai is said to be in a sale deed, dated 8 August 1639, to Francis named after the Chenna Kesava Perumal Temple; the word Chennai in Tamil means face, and the temple was regarded as the face of the city.
FACTS ABOUT CHENNAI
� Annual Budget of more than ₹2,000 Crores
� Maintain 40,000+ roads; Storm water drain length of 962 Km.
� Street lights 2,13,045 and using 19 megawatts per day
� Collection of Property Tax from 1.2 Million properties
� Maintaining 260 parks & 113 community halls
� Leased out 153 shopping complexes with 5500 shops
� Handling 5,200 MT of solid waste per day
� Fleet with 1,000+ conservancy vehicles
� Strength of 23,000+ staff
CORPORATION OF CHENNAI
� Corporation of Chennai is the Oldest Municipal Institution in India established on the 29th September 1688
� Sir Josiah Child, one of the directors of the East India Company was responsible for the formation of the Corporation of Chennai, on the model of Dutch Government in the East Indies
� Area of CoC is 426 Sq.Km.; and is headed by the Mayor, who presides over 200 councilors each of whom represent a ward in the city
� Centralized Open Source Web based Application
� Unified Citizen Web Portal for Services
� Enabling all modes for Collections - ATM, real-time Interface with Banks, Online, Handhelds, Manual Counters, IVRS and Credit/Debit
� Online Service Request with SMS/Email alerts on every status update
� Mobile based applications with GIS Integration � Bin Tracking, Complaints Registration � Mobile based Engineer�s Diary with MBook facility
� GPRS/GPS Tracking
IMPLEMENTATION SUCCESS STORIES
� Customization of ERP for the Greater Chennai Merger of 42 local bodies with CoC has been completed in a record time of 45 days
� Contractor Payment Process through RTGS
� Budget Control and Validation for all the Expenditure
� Weekly Review of 1500 Crore Capital Work through online reports
� End-to-End Online Building Plan Approval
� Centralized Financial Concurrence - consolidation of payments against each Bank � Instant Trial Balance and Real-time Journalization
ROADMAP TO SMART CITY
� GIS Mapping of Assets
� Open Data Portal
� City Wide Platform (Integrating Fire/ Police/ Water/ Sewerage/ Transportation/ Emergency Response)
� Single-Integrated Dashboard to manage Natural Calamities
� Participative Governance
� Works Management to Asset Management
OTHER MAJOR INITIATIVES
● Well-designed & traffic friendly roads with architect & traffic engineer
● Ecologically Sustainable Garbage Management with citizen participation
● Proactive actions with integrated disease tracking
● Integrated urban transport
● Smart streetlights - internet-enabled with camera and in-built diagnostics
● Green City ( Parks / Tree Management, Solar/LED Street Light, Waste to Energy)
ADMINISTRATION OF THE CHENNAI CITY
Chennai, governed by the Chennai Corporation (formerly Corporation of Madras), which was established in 1688. It is the oldest municipal corporation in India and the second oldest corporation in the world. In 2011, the jurisdiction of the Chennai Corporation expanded from 174 km2 (67 mile2 ) to an area of 426 km2 (164 m2 ), dividing in three regions � North, South and Central, which covers 200 wards (previously 155 wards and 10 zones) with 15 zones. The Worshipful Mayor and the councillor of each ward of the city are elected through popular vote by the residents of Chennai city. The Chennai Metropolitan Development Authority (CMDA) is the nodal agency responsible of planning and development of the Chennai Metropolitan Area (CMA), which is spread over an area of 1,189 km (459 mile2 ), covering Chennai district and parts of Thiruvallur and Kanchipuram districts. The larger suburbs are governed by the town municipalities, and the smaller still are e-governed by the Town Councils. They are called as the panchayats. Under the gamut of the CMDA are 5 parliamentary and 28 assembly constituencies. The CMDA has drafted a second Master Plan that aims at developing satellite townships around the city. The city�s contiguous satellite towns include Mahabalipuram in the south, Chengalpattu and Maraimalai Nagar in the southwest, and Sriperumpudur, Arakonam, Kancheepuram and Thriuvallur to the west.
Chennai, as the capital of the state of Tamil Nadu, houses the State Executive and Legislative Headquarters, primarily in the Secretariat Buildings in the Fort St. George campus. The Madras High Court is the highest judicial authority in the state, whose jurisdiction extends across Tamil Nadu and Puducherry. There is also a regional seat of the judiciary in Madurai city. Chennai city has three parliamentary constituencies: Chennai North, Chennai Central and Chennai South, and together they elect 14 Members of the Legislative Assembly (MLAs) to the state legislature.
The important and old building of the Chennai city, the Chepauk Palace in the, designed by Paul Benfield, is said to be the first Indo-Saracenic building in India. Other buildings of Fort St. George were built in 1640, and most of these were designed by the English architects Robert Fellowes Chisholm and Henry Irwin. The best examples of this style include the Madras High Court (built in 1892), Southern Railway Headquarters, Central Railway Station, Ripon Buildings, Government Museum, Senate House of the University of Madras, Amir Mahal, Bharat Insurance Building, Victoria Public Hall and the College of Engineering, Guindy, which is now the Anna University
POPULATION OF CHENNAI CITY
The total population of Chennai amounted to 3,841,396 in 1991, which increased further to 4,343,645 in 2001. Chennai district on the other accounted for 6.8 percent of the total population of 62,110,839 of the state in 2001. Males numbered 2,219,539 (51.3 per cent) and females constituted about 2,124,106 (48.7 per cent). It ranks 2nd among the districts of Tamil Nadu in population, next only to Coimbatore district. The state�s population has approximately been 72 million in 2011 Census. Chennai has become an important destination for trade and tourism, in recent years. It has evoked as a city with tremendous potential for industrial growth because of its economic viability and available infrastructure.
The State Government Departments are geared towards increasing trade and commerce links with other countries and also developing greater industrial growth. The entire boom in the trade and business of Chennai city accounts largely for its rapidly growing population. More businesses and job opportunities in the city lure people from in and around Chennai and settle in here. Major multinationals have already set up their branch offices in Chennai, leading to more people being hired by these companies. So, the population of Chennai has grown rapidly in the last 20 years, due to major industrialization and tremendous growth.
In the Census 2001, Chennai city population was at 4.216 million while the agglomeration developed around it is estimated to have nearly twice the population. It houses roughly 25 per cent of the country's 1.8 million Information Technology (IT) workforce and earns about Rs. 360,000 million annually through software exports. Further, the North Indian IT and other specialists / experts have started moving to Chennai city for core industrial employment/jobs, especially in the automobile sector, construction work (masons and labourers) and also in hotels/fast food chains. This is increasing the population of Chennai city by migration, mainly for jobs and employment purposes
HOUSING IN CHENNAI CITY
The city has the fourth highest population of slum dwellers as well among the major cities in India, with about 820,000 people (18.6 per cent of the city�s population) living in slum conditions. According to Census 2011, Chennai district has 1.1 million households, with 51 per cent of them living in rented houses. There are about 1,240 slums in Chennai. As per Census 2011, the residential housing stock available is 1.15 million � a surplus of about 50,000 houses. As many as 43,700 of them are kept vacant. In the suburbs of Chennai, located in Thiruvallur and Kancheepuram districts, the figures for vacant houses are 56,000 and 71,000 houses, respectively. Of the existing housing stock in the city, about 200,000 houses are not in good condition, necessitating either rebuilding or renovation, most necessitating rebuilding new units. About 26,000 households live in houses without any room and another 427,000 families (with an average size of 5 members) live in small dwelling units with only one room. An earlier estimate shows that there is need to generate about 420,000 units for low income groups by 2016.
ECONOMY OF CHENNAI CITY
Industrialization in the city dates back to the 16th century, when textile mills manufactured goods which were exported to Britain during its war with France. In the late 18th century, it became the only city in Asia to manufacture car engines and ancillary parts for ships and battle tanks. According to Forbes magazine, Chennai is one of the fastest growing cities in the world and the only Indian city to be rated in the �Forbes-Top 10 Fastest Growing Cities in the World. It is ranked 4th in hosting the maximum number of Fortune 500 companies of India, next only to Mumbai, Delhi and Kolkata. It also is home to 24 Indian companies having net worth of more than US $ 1.0 billion. As of 2012, the city has about 34,260 identified companies having in its 15 zones, of which 5,196 companies have a paid-up capital of over 5 million rupees. Chennai has a diversified economic has anchored by the automobile, software services, hardware manufacturing, health care and financial services industries. According to the Confederation of Indian Industry, Chennai is estimated to grow to a 100 billion US dollars economy, 2.5 times its present size, by the year 2025. As of 2012, with 100,000 crore of rupees investment in the pipeline over 5 years, the city is poised for major industrial investment. Chennai is classified as a global city by GaWC, with a ranking of beta based on the extent of global reach and financial influence.
The city is a base to around 30 per cent of India�s automobile industry and 40 per cent of the automobile components industry. A large number of automotive companies including Hyundai, Renault, Nissan Motors, Ashok Leyland, Daimler AG, Caterpillar Inc., Komatsu Limited, Ford, BMW and Mitsubishi have manufacturing plants in Chennai. The Heavy Vehicles Factory at Avadi produces military vehicles, including India�s main battle tank: Arjun MBT. The Integral Coach Factory at Perambur manufactures railway coaches and other rolling stock for Indian Railways. Chennai contributes more than 50 per cent of India�s leather exports.
Many software and software services companies have development centers in Chennai, which contributed 14 percent of India�s total software exports of 1,442,140 million rupees during 2006-2007, making it the second largest exporter, by city, of software in the country, being Bangalore. The Tidel Park in Chennai was billed as Asia�s largest IT Park when it was built. Major software companies have their offices set up here, with some of them making Chennai their largest base.
Telecom and Electronics Manufacturers, based in and around Chennai, include Nokia, Nokia Siemens, Motorola, Dell, Force10, Wipro, Zebronics, Foxconn and Siemens among other. Chennai is currently the largest electronics hardware exporter in India, accounting for 45 per cent of the total exports in 2010-11. Telecom giants Ericsson and Alcatel-Lucent, Pharmaceuticals giant Pfizer and chemicals giant Dow Chemicals have research and development facilities in Chennai. The TICEL Bio-tech Park at Taramani and Golden Jubilee Bio-tech Park at Siruseri houses biotechnology companies and laboratories. Chennai has a stock exchange called the Madras Stock Exchange.
A study conducted by the National Housing Bank on the residential price index of Indian cities has shown that Chennai experienced the highest growth after the 2008-2012 global financial crisis. According to a study by 99 acres.com in 2011, Chennai real estate saw an average price appreciation of 7 per cent with Tambaram, Chromepet and Thoraipakkam leading the way. Medical tourism is another important part of Chennai�s economy with 45 per cent of the total medical tourists to India making their way to Chennai. The Tamil film industry and the Tamil television industry are also significant parts of Chennai�s economy. The city also has a permanent exhibition complex in Nandambakkam called Chennai Trade Centre, besides the Lalithkala Academy. An estimated 100,000 people in the city have assets over Rs. 50 million. The city is the third largest market in India for luxury cars.
The religion-wise population percentage in Chennai city is: the Hindus 81.3 per cent, Muslims 9.4 per cent, Christians 7.6 per cent and Jains 1.1 per cent. A majority of the population in Chennai is of Tamils. Tamizh is the primary language spoken in Chennai. English is also spoken largely by the white-color workers, often mixed with Tamil, the regional language. The Telugus form a majority among the non-Tamil communities. In 2001, out of the 2,937,000 migrants (33.8 per cent of the city population), 61.5 per cent were from other parts of the state, 33.8 per cent were from the rest of India and 3.7 per cent were from outside the country. Chennai, along with Mumbai and Delhi, is one of a few Indian cities which is home to a diverse population of ethno-religious communities. Minorities include Armenians, Chinese, Marwaris, Parsis, Sindhis, Oriyas, Goans, Kannadigas, Anglo-Indians, Bengalis, Punjabis, and Malayalees.
The idea of Special Economic Zone (SEZ) in Chennai city is perhaps more than 100 years old. The East India Company was the first to come up with a plan to create an enclave that offered a 30-year tax exemption for those who settled near Fort St. George and traded with them. Today, the Tamil Nadu state offers similar benefits inside the SEZ � Special Economic Zone: tax breaks, quick clearance of paper work, infrastructure facilities, with the idea of attracting both investors and the working populations. The Chennai city demographics have reflected the fact that people always move where the work is. Till about 1975, the people migrated from the other southern states to Chennai city, primarily in search of jobs in mineral-based industries, but with the emergence of the knowledge sector post-1991, a number of large players in the telecom, software and banking sectors have setup offices in Chennai city.
ENVIRONMENT / GEOGRAPHY OF CHENNAI CITY
Chennai, sometimes referred to as the �Gateway to South India�, is located on the south-eastern coast of India in the north-eastern part of Tamil Nadu on a flat coastal plain known as the Eastern Coastal Plains. Its average elevation is around 6.7 metres (22 feet), and its highest point is 60 m (200 feet). Two major rivers meander through Chennai, the Cooum River through the centre and the Adyar River in the south. Cooum is one of the most polluted rivers in the whole of South of India and serves as a potential health hazard to the people living in and around the river. The third river, the Kotralaiyar, flows through the northern fringes of the city before draining into the Bay of Bengal, at Ennore. The Adyar and Cooum rivers are heavily polluted with effluents and waste. The Adyar river is relatively less polluted than the Cooum. The Buckingham Canal, 4 km (2.5 mile) inland, runs parallel to the coast, linking the two rivers.
GEOLOGY OF THE CHENNAI CITY
Chennai is classified as being the Seismic Zone III, indicating a moderate risk of damage from earthquakes. Owing to the geotectonic zone, the city falls in, and is considered as, a potential geothermal energy site. The crust has granite rocks indicating volcanic activities in the past. It is expected that a temperature of around 200o C - 300o C will be available if the ground were drilled 4 km to 5 km deep. The region has the oldest rocks in the country, dating back to nearly 1.0 billion years.
CLIMATE OF THE CHENNAI CITY
Chennai has tropical wet and dry climate. The city lies on the thermal equator and is also on the coast, which prevents extreme variations in seasonal temperatures. The weather is hot and humid for most of year the year. The hottest part is the late May to early June, and the coolest part of the year is January, with a minimum temperature. The average annual rainfall is about 140 cm (55 in). The City gets most of its seasonal rainfall from the northeast monsoon winds, from mid-October to mid-December. Cyclones in the Bay of Bengal sometimes hit the city but more often gives rains. At times, the rains are a downpour.
URBAN STRUCTURE OF THE CHENNAI CITY
Chennai is divided into four broad regions: the North, Central, South and West. North Chennai is primarily an industrial area. South Chennai and West Chennai, previously mostly residential, are fast becoming commercial, home to a growing number of information technology firms, financial companies and call centres, which are invariably multinational. The city is expanding quickly along the Old Mahabalipuram Road and Grand Southern Trunk Road (GST Road) in the south and towards Ambattur, Koyambedu and Sriperumbudur in the west. Chennai city has a total coast length of about 19 km, which now has more than doubled with the expanded Corporation limits. The Chennai beach is the second longest urban beach in the world.
INFRASTRUCTURES OF CHENNAI CITY
Among the city infrastructures, Tele-Communications, Banking, Health Care, Waste Management, Shopping, Cinema and Entertainment, Tourism and Hospitality, and Recreation are discussed to give an idea of developments in the recent years.
Communication System of Chennai City: Chennai is one of the four cities in India through which the country is connected with the rest of the world through undersea fiber-optic cables. In this area, the other three cities of Mumbai, Kochi and Tutthukudi are also important. The city is the landing point for major submarine telecommunication cable networks such as SMW (connecting India with Western Europe, Middle East and Southeast Asia), i2i (connecting India with Singapore), TIC (connecting India with Singapore), and BRICS (connecting India with Brazil, Russia, China, and South Africa and also the United States). The 3,175 km-long, 8-fiber-paired i2i has the world�s largest design capacity of 8.4 terabits per second. As of 2007, nine mobile phone service companies operate nine GSM networks and two CDMA networks (for example, BSNL, Airtel, Vodafone, Tata Teleservices, MTS and Idea Cellular) in the city. There are also four land line companies (BSNL, Airtel, Aircel, and Tata). Commercial and domestic broadband internet services are provided by all the four service providers and a majority of the mobile network service providers. Chennai was the first Indian city to have the Wi-Fi facility in a widespread manner. As of 2010, there were 9.8 million mobile phone users in Chennai. Of late, in places like Chennai, people use two numbers as they use dual SIMs, one personal and the other official. Landline users amounted to 1.4 million. In 2010, Chennai had the fourth highest number of active internet users in India, with 2.2 million users (Telecom Regulatory Authority of India, 2011).
Banking System in Chennai: City Prominent financial institutions, including the World Bank, Standard Chartered Bank, ABN AMRO, Bank of America, The Royal Bank of Scotland, Goldman Sachs, Barclays, HSBC, ING Group, Allianz, Sumitomo Mitsui Banking Corporation, The Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFG, Abu Dhabi Commercial Bank, Asian Development Bank, Credit Suisse, BNP Paribas Fortis, Deutsche Bank and Citibank have back office and development centre operations in the city. Chennai is home to the national level commercial banks such as Indian Bank and Indian Overseas Bank and many state level co-operative banks, finance and insurance companies.
Health Care in Chennai City: Chennai has world-class medical facilities, including both government-run and private hospitals. The government-aided hospitals include General Hospital, Adyar Cancer Institute, TB Sanatorium, and National Institute of Siddha. The National Institute of Siddha is one of the seven apex national-level educational institutions that promote excellence in Indian systems of medicines and Ayurveda. Some of the popular private-run hospitals in Chennai are the Apollo Hospitals, Chettinad Health City, Madras Medical Mission, MIOT Hospitals and Vasan Healthcare. The prime NABHaccredited hospitals include Chennai Apollo Speciality Hospital, Dr. Mehta Hospitals, Frontier Lifeline Hospital, Global Hospitals and Health City, Sankara Nethralaya and Vijaya Medical and Educational Trust. Chennai attracts about 45 per cent of the health tourists from abroad and 30 per cent to 40 per cent of the domestic health tourists. The city has also been termed the India�s health capital.
Waste Management of Chennai City: Chennai city collects and removes 4,500 metric tonnes of garbage every day. Night conservancy services are being carried out on all important roads and commercial areas of the city (Chennai City Corporation website, March 26, 2013). Collection of municipal solid wastes at source (door-to-door collection) has been implemented in all zones. About 95 per cent of the households are covered under this programme. Source segregation is also being promoted. The city has three dump yards, one each at Perungudi, Kodungaiyur, and Pallikaranai. The Corporation has planned to, and created, four new dump yards at Mullaipattu, Minjur, Vallur and Kuthambakkam villages, ranging in size from 20 acres to 100 acres. The civic body also spends Rs. 4,000 million a year on solid waste management.
TRANSPORT OF CHENNAI CITY
Air Transport Facility: Chennai serves as a major gateway to southern India. The Chennai International Airport, comprising the Anna international terminal and the Kamaraj domestic terminal with a total passenger movement of 12.9 million and aircraft movements of 120,127 in 2011-2012, is the third busiest airport and the second busiest cargo terminus in India. Chennai handles 316 flights a day, again making the third spot among Indian Airports. The city is connected to major hubs across Asia, Europe, and North America through more than 30 national and international carriers. The existing airport is undergoing further modernization and expansion with an addition of 1069.99 acres, while a new Greenfield airport is to be constructed at an estimated cost of Rs. 20,000 million in Sriperumbudur on 4,200 acres of land. The new airport is likely to handle cargo spillover traffic from the existing one.
Rail Transport Facility: Chennai hosts the headquarters of the Southern Railways. The city has two main railway terminals. The Chennai Central Station, the city�s largest, provides access to other major cities as well as many other smaller towns across India, whereas Chennai Egmore gives access to destinations primarily within Tamil Nadu; however, it also handles a few inter-state trains. The Chennai suburban railway network, one of the oldest in the country, facilitates transportation within the city. It consists of four broad gauge sectors terminating at two locations in the city, namely, the Chennai Central and Chennai Beach. While three sectors are operated on-grade, the fourth sector is majorly an elevated corridor, which links Chennai Beach to Velacherry and is interlinked with the remaining rail network. Construction is underway for a part underground and part elevated Rapid Transit Systems, locally known as the Chennai Metro Rail. There is also a proposal to construct a monorail network to augment the existing public transportation system in the city.
Road Transport Facility: Chennai is one of the cities in India that is connected by the Golden Quadrilateral System of National Highways. It is connected to other Indian cities by four National Highways (NH) that originate in the city. Among them are the NH 4 to Mumbai (via Tiruchirappalli and Dindugul) and NH 205 to Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh (via Tirupati). Chennai is connected to other parts of the state and the Union Territory of Pondicherry by state highways. The Government has constructed grade separators and flyovers at major intersections, and built Inner Ring Road and Outer Ring Road. The Gemini flyover, built in 1973, crosses over the arterial road, and eases the traffic movements towards Anna Salai and towards the Kathipara Flyover (it is now known as the Anna Flyover). As of 2011, according to the Transport Department, there were 2.58 million two-wheelers and 0.56 million fourwheelers in the city, and the Metropolitan Transport Corporation (MTC) bus fleet were 3,421, which was 0.1 per cent of the total vehicular population of the city. The Chennai Mofussil Bus Terminus (CMBT) is the largest bus station in Asia. It is the main intercity bus station for Chennai, administered by 7 Government-owned Transport Corporations, which operate intercity and interstate bus services. There are private bus companies that provide similar transport services. The MTC provides an exclusive intercity bus service, consisting of 3,421 buses including the Volvo air-conditioned bus services within the city on 724 routes, which provide transportation to 5.52 million passengers daily. The Tamil Nadu State Transport Corporation operates Volvo air-conditioned services from Chennai to nearby cities like Pondicherry, Vellore and Hosur. The other means of road transport in the city include vans, regionally known as Maxi Cabs, auto-rickshaws, on call metered taxis and tourist taxis. Share auto services have been in operation in the last few years, making travel a bit more easier for those who could spend a little more money for the travel.
Sea Transport Facility: The city is served by two major ports, Chennai Port, one of the largest artificial ports in India, and Ennore Port. The Chennai port is the largest in the Bay of Bengal, with an annual cargo tonnage of 61.46 million (2010-2011), and the second busiest container hub in India, with an annual container volume of 1.523 million TEUs (2010-2011). The port handles transportation of automobiles, motorcycles and general industrial cargo. The Ennore Port with an annual cargo tonnage of 11.01 million (2010-2011), handles cargo such as coal, ore and other bulk and rock mineral products. The Royapuram fishing harbor is used by fishing boats and trawlers. A mega shipyard project called the Kattupalli Shipyard cum Captive Port Complex is being built by L&T Shipbuilding at Kattupalli village near Ennore.
MEDIA IN CHENNAI CITY
Newspaper publishing started in Chennai with the launch of a weekly, The Madras Courier in 1785. It was followed by the weeklies The Madras Gazette and The Government Gazette in 1795. The Spectator, founded in 1836, was the first English newspaper in Chennai to be owned by an Indian and became the city�s first daily newspaper in 1853. The first Tamil newspaper Swadesamitran was launched in 1899. The major English dailies published in Chennai are The Hindu, The New Indian Express, The Deccan Chronicle and The Times of India. The evening dailies are: The Trinity Mirror and The News Today. The major Tamil dailies include the Dina Thanthi, Dinakaran, Dina Mani, Dina Malar. Tamil Murasu, Makkal Kural and Malai Malar are the regional language evening dailies. Doordarshan runs two terrestrial television channels and two satellite television channels from its Chennai centre, which was set up in 1974. Private Tamil satellite televisions are the Sun TV, Raj TV, Vijay TV, Vasanth TV, Kalaignar TV, Jaya TV and Captain TV and they are also the popular among the television viewers.
EDUCATION IN CHENNAI CITY
Chennai is in second place for literacy among the metropolitan city centres in India with a 90.33 per cent literacy rate. Chennai has a mix of public and private schools. The public school system is managed by the Chennai Corporation with an enrollment of 142,387 students in over 330 schools. Tamil and English are the primary media of instruction, though several schools also use Telugu or Urdu. Public schools run by the Chennai Corporation are all affiliated with the Tamil Nadu State Board, while private schools may be affiliated with either of the Tamil Nadu Board of Secondary Education or the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE). There are also the Matriculation School education. The Arts and Science Colleges in Chennai are affiliated to University of Madras, which has five campuses in the city. The Indian Institute of Technology Madras (IITM) and the Anna University are the two well-known centres for engineering education in the city.
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS OF CHENNAI CITY
The consular presence in the city dates back to 1794, when William Abbott was appointed U.S. consular agent for South India. As of 2012, there were 43 foreign representatives in Chennai, including consulate generals, deputy high commissions and honorary consulates.
Chennai is the capital city of Tamil Nadu and the fourth largest city in India. Located on the Coromandel Coast of the Bay of Bengal, Chennai is popularly known as �the gateway to the South� as it is the seat of culture and learning in South India. Hailed as the automobile capital of India, Chennai is the third largest commercial and industrial hub of India. As per folk lore, the name �Chennaipattinam� arrived from the Chenna Kesava Perumal temple. It is also believed that the region was named after Damarla Chennappa Nayakudu, who was the Nayaka of Kalahasthi and Vandavasi. Several tools related to the Stone Age recovered from Pallavaram of Chennai, by the Archaeological Survey of India, points to the fact that Chennai region held a megalithic cultural establishment.
Chennai is the fourth-largest city in India. It is a coastal city with the second largest beach in the world. The climate is hot and humid but the breeze blowing from the sea makes the climate bearable. It is India's major leather-producing center and the quality of leather compares with the finest in the world. The City with its present population of about 8 million generates about 11 million trips in a day, with about 6 million vehicular trips. The ever growing vehicular and passenger demands coupled with constraints on capacity augmentation of the existing network have resulted in chaotic condition during peak hours of the day.
The recorded history of Chennai can be dated back to 1st century AD, when it was regarded as an important military and economic hub. Later Chennai was ruled by many South Indian dynasties like the Pallavas, Cholas, Pandyas and Vijayanagara. The Portuguese arrived at Chennai during 1522 and they were followed by the Dutch in 1612. The British East India Company came to Chennai in 1639. It was the adjacent village of Madraspattinam that was chosen as the place to settle in by the British. The town of George Town, with the fort of St. George became their stronghold in the South. George Town was granted its first municipal charter in 1688, which makes it the oldest municipal corporation in India. In the 17th century, Madraspattinam and Chennaipattinam were merged by the British and it was renamed as Madraspattinam. By the end of 18th century, most of Tamil Nadu came under their control. Under British rule Chennai was transformed to become a major urban centre and naval base in South India.
It was in 1996 that �Madras� or �Madraspattinam� was renamed as �Chennai� by the Tamil Nadu State Government. Chennai, today, is one of the major tourist destinations in South India. Chennai is famous for its temples and churches which are considered as fine examples of architecture and craftsmanship. Parthasarathy Temple, Kaapaleshwar temple, Ashtalakshmi temple, Santhome Cathedral Basilica, Velankanni Church, etc. are some of the famous religious attractions in Chennai. The highlight of Chennai tourism is its beaches. Chennai is home to one of the longest urban beaches in the world, Marina Beach, which is 12 km long. The months from November to March are the best time to visit Chennai, when the weather is pleasant.
The city also enjoys a vibrant culture, which is an amalgamation of the old and new. Of the many festivals celebrated, Tamil New Year is one of the biggest. It is celebrated by locals with great pomp and fervour. Festivities, feasting and giving gifts mark the occasion. The festival is also known as Puthandu in many parts of Tamil Nadu. Tamil New Year is considered an auspicious time by Tamilians to start something new.
The vicinity of Chennai to Mamallapuram, Pondicherry, Kanyakumari, Chidambaram, Tiruvallur, Tirupati, Madurai, Tirunelveli, Swamithoppe, Kanchipuram, Thanjavur, Tiruvannamalai and Tiruchirapalli makes it a hotspot among tourists. Anna International Airport lies 7 km south of Chennai. The airport is connected by several international airlines including Air India, British Airways, Lufthansa, Singapore Airlines, Air Lanka and Malaysia Airlines. Pre-paid taxis and airport coaches are available at the airport. Chennai has three major railway stations - the Chennai Central is the biggest, Egmore station and Tambaram station.
For quick access across the city, the recently introduced north-south MRTS (Mass Rapid Transport System) can be boarded. Chennai Central and Egmore are the main railway stations that link north and west India, respectively with south India. At Chennai, most government bus services for Tamil Nadu which is TSTC and other private buses ply to all the cities in the state. The interstate bus service now operates from the newly opened Chennai Mofussil Bus Terminal at Jawaharlal Nehru Salai, Koyembedu and is believed to be the largest bus station in Asia. Private bus services along with deluxe Volvo bus services are available from Bangalore, Hyderabad, Cochin and Coimbatore.
POPULATION The population of Chennai in1639 was 40000 and today the city is estimated to have a population of 7.5 million, which gives a population density of about 6482 per sq. km. It is observed that with the population growth between 1921 and 1981 has been very rapid and similar trend continues.
INDUSTRIAL AND EMPLOYMENT SCENARIO Economic growth of CMA has been slower in the large-scale formal industrial sector compared to the growth in the small and marginal sectors in trade, commerce and transport. Per capita income in CMA is rather low compared to other metropolitan cities; it was Rs. 1760 per capita /month as per the house hold survey carried out in 2005. About 65 percent of the population can be classified as economically weaker section.
LAND USE POLICY In 1973, the Chennai Metropolitan Development Authority (CMDA) was set up and it was entrusted the task of implementation of the Master Plan. The detailed plan, which was prepared for a time frame of over 20 years commencing from 1971, deals with land development, traffic and transportation, housing and slum clearance. At present the Master Plan for the year 2026 is under finalization.
ROAD NETWORK AND TRAFFIC The road layout in the metropolitan area is of radial pattern with 3 principal radial arterials, viz. NH-5, NH-4, NH-45, to the north, west and south respectively. In addition, there are two more radial arterials,(i) along the coast on the northern side (Thiruvotriyur High Road) and (ii) between NH-4 and NH-45 (Arcot Road).