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Tamil Nadu has been one of India�s most progressive states and is amongst the top three on several economic and social indicators. Over the past few years, the state had lost its edge in terms of economic growth and fiscal position. In the Governor�s address in June 2011, the newly elected government identified the need for formulating a succinct strategy for rejuvenation of economic and social growth of the state and to reclaim the top position. Such a strategic blue print for development should aim to achieve a consistent economic growth rate of over 10 percent per annum in a highly inclusive manner. The government envisaged the preparation of a �Vision Document for Tamil Nadu� that would identify and remove the bottlenecks in development, prioritise critical infrastructure projects, and work to propel the state of Tamil Nadu to the forefront of development once again. The objective of achieving economic prosperity and employment generation with inclusive growth is sought to be achieved through the implementation of a coherent Vision.
Tamil Nadu, the southern most state of the Indian peninsula is, spread over 1,30,058 Sq.Km; it lies between 80 5" to 130 35" N and 760 15" to 800 20" E and accounts for about 4 percent of the total area of the country. The topography of Tamil Nadu broadly consists of the coastal plains in the east; uplands and hills as one proceeds westwards; the plains account for more than half the area of the state. Tamil Nadu has number of rivers that are relatively small and not perennial. Barring the hills, the climate of Tamil Nadu can be classified as semi�arid tropic monsoonic. The maximum temperature in the plains is about 450 C in the summer and the minimum goes to about 100 C during the winter; the normal rainfall in the state is about 950mm with an average number of 50 rainy days.
Analyzing the land use pattern of the state, it is found that 43% of Tamil Nadu�s geographical area is under agriculture with a per capita figure of 0.0982 ha. of agricultural land. While agriculture and allied sectors account for nearly 62% of the total employment of the state, their contribution to economy is only 22%. In order to increase the productivity we have relied too much on improved crop varieties, fertilizers and pesticides. The residues of these have affected soil structure and polluted the water through leaching. India is the leader in fruit production in the world. The horticulture and plantation crops occupy a total of 7,53,985 ha. of area. However, there is need to improve the productivity of these crops on sustainable basis without affecting the overall land and water environment.
Water is the most important resource for the livelihood of the human beings; Tamil Nadu is water deficient state despite receiving approximately 950 mm of rainfall per year. Tamil Nadu has number of seasonal rivers; the, surface water resources are almost fully harnessed by impounding the available water in 61 major reservoirs and also in 39,202 big and small tanks. As per the estimates, 60% of the ground water resources have also been utilized. So the management of available water resources on a sustainable basis becomes quite imperative.
The long coastline of over 1000 Km. forms a major natural resource with immense value for commercial, recreational and aesthetic purposes. Wetlands are transitional zones that occupy an intermediate position between dry land and open water. This term encompasses a diverse and heterogeneous assemblage of habitats ranging from rivers, flood plains and rainfed lakes to mangrove swamps, estuaries and salt marshes. Wetlands are one of the most productive eco systems. They perform useful functions of flood control, water storage purification and stabilization of shorelines etc. Agricultural run off with pesticide residues and indiscriminate destruction of mangroves for fuel wood are posing a threat to this ecosystem.
The growth in human population over the years has had both the positive and negative impact on overall quality of environment. As the demand for energy has increased the potential for electrical energy production has also been tapped to a great extent. Apart from that we have also realized the importance of non-conventional energy sources to minimise the pressure on the conventional energysources. Growth in population has led to the enhanced growth in tourism. It is now considered to be one of the fastest growing industries in Tamil Nadu. Tamil Nadu is especially fortunate in having its ancient and rich heritage preserved, which serves as a main tourist attraction throughout the state. But coupled with promotion of tourism, the problem of environmental degradation, particularly the worsening sanitary condition in tourist spots needs to be addressed.
The ever-increasing population migration leads to the problem of urbanization and human settlement. Urbanisation is an inevitable challenge, which has to be faced and handled properly in the right perspective. The sanitation facilities, hygiene, sewerage, water supply and above all proliferation of slums are the important concerns. Being one of the most industrialised states of the country, the growth of factories and the number of persons employed in the industrial sector is quite high. Industrialization though important as the back bone of the development, leads to several adverse effects on the environment through discharge of untreated effluents, emission of the green house gases and noise pollution.
Tamil Nadu is the third industrialised and the most urbanised state in the country. The impact of Industrialisation and urbanisation on environment is substantial as evidenced from rise in hazardous and biomedical waste generation, increasing vehicular population and consequent increase in energy demand and air pollution.
Tamil Nadu had a population of 55.9 million according to the 1991 census, which rose to 62.1 million in 2001 making it the sixth most populous State in the country. Tamil Nadu is not only one of the most populous states of India but also densely populated. Density of population in Tamil Nadu is 478 persons per sq. km. whereas the national average is 324 persons per sq. km., and is the sixth highest among the major states of India.
The population growth rate has declined during 1991-2001 as compared to 1981-1991 in practically all the major states except Bihar (excluding Jharkhand). The southern states have shown a decline in growth rate from their already relatively lower levels. In Tamil Nadu the growth rate between 1981 and 1991 was 15.39 percent whereas growth rate between 1991 and 2001 was only 11.19 percent. The decadal growth rate of Tamilnadu was lower than the national level. At the national level it is 2.50 percent point lower than the previous decade whereas in Tamil Nadu it is 4.20 percent point lower than the previous decade.
RURAL � URBAN POPULATION
Tamil Nadu is also relatively more urbanised than the other major states of India. According to the 2001 Census, 43.86 percent of the population of Tamil Nadu lives in urban areas whereas the level of urbanization at the national level is less than one-third (27.78%). According to 1991 census also the level of urbanization of Tamil Nadu (34.15%) was high; however, in 2001 it became the state having the highest percentage of urban population in India. The increase in level of urbanisation in Tamil Nadu over the period 1991-2001 is related to the emergence of a large number of statutory towns. In the 2001 census, all statutory towns and places that satisfy certain demographic and economic criteria are treated as urban. All Town Panchayats have been included in the urban frame irrespective of whether they satisfy the demographic and economic criteria.
The urban population of Tamil Nadu is about 16 million, around of 33 percent of the total population in the state. The state has 434 urban centres. Of these 21 centres have population over 1,00,000(Class I), consisting of about 8 million people. While Chennai metropolitan area has apopulation of 4.3 million, each urban agglomeration of Maduarai, Coimbatore, Thiruchirapalli and Salem covers a population of 2.9 millions. There are 41 urban centres with a population of 50,000 to 1,00,000 (Class II), accomodating 3 million people and 90 towns with population between 20,000 to 50,000 (Class III) have 3 million people. The urban population is distributed in 6 municipal Corporations, 102 Municipalities, 9 Municipal townships and 635 town panchayats. The rural population is distributed in 12,584 village Panchayats.
EMPLOYMENT SITUATION IN TAMIL NADU
the Worker Population Ratio is higher in Tamil Nadu compared to the national average both in 1999-2000 and 1993-94 in rural as well as in urban areas. Compared to the other major states work force participation ratio is higher in Tamil Nadu especially in urban areas. The sectoral composition of workers of rural Tamil Nadu reveals that about 70% of the worker population in such areas is engaged in the agricultural sector. The Worker population ratio engaged in agricultural sector has decreased in rural Tamil Nadu from 1993-94 (705) to 1999-2000 (679). But in rural Tamil Nadu secondary and tertiary sector employment is also important. WPR in primary sector is lower than the national average. There is an increase of worker population in the service sector and also in construction. The sectoral composition of workers is different in urban Tamil Nadu. In urban Tamil Nadu 90% of the worker population is engaged in the secondary and tertiary sectors.
There has been a significant reduction in the proportion of population below the poverty line during the last two decades. The Expert Group of the Union Planning Commission estimated that the proportion of people living below poverty line has declined from 54.86 percent in 1973-1974 to 35.97 percent in 1993-1994, while in the case of Tamil Nadu poverty has declined from 54.94 percent in 1973-74 to 35.03 percent in 1993-94. There has been a sharp decline of percentage of population below poverty line through out the country between 1993-94 and 1999-2000. The Percentage of population below poverty line has decreased from 35.97 to 26.10 percent at the national level and 35.03 to 21.12 per cent in Tamil Nadu.
CLASSIFICATION OF TAMIL NADU SOILS
In Tamil Nadu soils are classified in to six orders, 12 sub-orders, 20 great groups, 44 subgroups and 94 soil families in the hierarchy. The six orders are Entisols, Inceptisols,Alfisols, Mollisols, Ultisols, Vertisols. Inceptisols cover about 50% of the State�s total geographical area followed by Alfisols (30%), Vertisols (7%), Entisols (6%), Ultisols (1%) and negligible area by Mollisols. About 5% of the area are miscellaneous land types, which include rocklands, marshes, urban areas and water bodies.
The agricultural engineering department is actively engaged in the �Conservation, management and development� of the soil and water resources of the State. The agricultural engineering department helps farmers in: i. The conservation of moisture and the protection of soil from erosion and degradation. ii. Creation and stabilisation of irrigation potentials through Minor Irrigation activities: iii.Optimization of water use by introduction of Micro Irrigation System. iv.Providing farm power to carry out timely agricultural operations and reclamation works The major schemes and projects carried out by agricultural engineering are as follows
SCHEMES 1. Minor irrigation schemes 2. Micro irrigation systems 3. Installation of drip irrigation systems 4. Soil and water conservation schemes in the hills and plains 5. River valleys projects 6. Hill area development program 7. Western Ghats development programme 8. Comprehensive water- shed development project 9. Command area development programme 10. Remote sensing
1. Soil conservation in the catchments of Kundah and Bhavani River Valley Projects
2. Drip Irrigation System for fruits, flowers and coconuts
3. Comprehensive watershed development project
4. Comprehensive watershed development project in Tirunelveli and Thoothukudi Districts
5. Comprehensive Watershed development project in Viruthunagar, Sivaganga and Ramanathapuram Districts
Tamil Nadu is endowed with varied agroclimatic conditions suitable for the cultivation of varied horticultural crops. The fruit crops suitable for tropical conditions viz. mango, banana, acidime, guava, grapes, vegetables like onion, tomato, brinjal, bhendi, greens, gourds, spices and plantation crops like cashew, betelvine and flowers are being cultivated extensively in the districts of Chengalpattu, Vellore, Salem, Dharmapuri, Coimbatore, Trichy, Nagapattinam, Dindigul, Madurai, Virudhunagar, Tirunelveli and Kanyakumari. Sub tropical crops like pineapple, cardamom, pepper, clove, arecanut etc. are grown in large areas in Salem, Coimbatore, Dindigul, Nilgiris and Kanyakumari districts. Temporate fruit crops like pear, plum, peach and vegetables like carrot, potato, beans, cabbage, beetroot and plantation crops like tea and coffee are cultivated in Dindigul and Nilgiris districts. To promote the cultivation of these horticultural crops, several development schemes are being formulated and implemented by horticulture department.
FORESTS AND WILDLIFE Forests are nature�s renewable resource essential for environmental stability and food security. The Forest department in Tamil Nadu is custodian of 22,845 sq. kms of forest land, which constitute 17.56% of the geographical area as against 33% targetted under the National Forest Policy, 1988. Nearly half of the forest area is subjected to heavy degradation on account of biotic pressure. Various schemes and programmes of Government are aimed at restoring the degraded forest and expanding forests outside the Reserve Forest area.
ENERGY SCANERIO - CONVENTIONAL AND NON-CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES
The energy sector plays a pivotal role in the overall development of the economy. Soon after independence, the country shifted to �uncontrolled monopoly� with the passing of electricity supply act, with the creation of state electricity boards and the industrial policy resolution, (1956) reserving generation, transmission and distribution of electricity for the state sector. This led to a state monopoly of power transmission, generation and distribution. With the opening of power generation to private sector by amending electricity act, in 1991, India entered a regime of controlled monopoly. Now the electricity industry has entered an era of regulated competition with the enactment of the electricity regulatory comission act 1988 and gives a meaningful role to the private sector and the market to play its part in the nation�s infrastructure building. In Tamil Nadu the electricity is used for all purposes viz, domestic consumption, lighting, cooking and eating and non domestic-commerce, industry, street lighting, transport and communication, utilities and services etc
Tamil Nadu is also home to the Tamil film industry also known as "Kollywood", which released the most number of films in India in 2013. The term Kollywood is a portmanteau of Kodambakkam and Hollywood. Tamil cinema is one of the largest centres of film production in India. In Tamil Nadu, cinema ticket prices are regulated by the government. Single screen theaters may charge a maximum of ₹50, while theaters with more than three screens may charge a maximum of ₹120 per ticket. The first silent film in Tamil Keechaka Vadham, was made in 1916. The first talkie was a multi-lingual, Kalidas, which released on 31 October 1931, barely 7 months after India's first talking picture Alam Ara Swamikannu Vincent, who had built the first cinema of South India in Coimbatore, introduced the concept of "Tent Cinema" in which a tent was erected on a stretch of open land close to a town or village to screen the films. The first of its kind was established in Madras, called "Edison's Grand Cinemamegaphone". This was due to the fact that electric carbons were used for motion picture projectors.
Tamil Nadu is the second largest contributor
to India's GDP. For the year 2014-15 Tamil Nadu's GSDP was ₹9767
billion (US$150 billion), and growth was 14.86. It ranks third in
foreign direct investment (FDI) approvals (cumulative 1991�2002) of
₹ 225,826 million ($5,000 million), next only to Maharashtra and
Delhi constituting 9.12 per cent of the total FDI in the country.
The per capita income in 2007�2008 for the state was ₹ 72,993
ranking third among states with a population over 10 million and has
steadily been above the national average.
According to the 2011 Census, Tamil Nadu is the most urbanised state in India (49 per cent), accounting for 9.6 per cent of the urban population while only comprising 6 per cent of India's total population, and is the most urbanised state in India.Services contributes to 45 per cent of the economic activity in the state, followed by manufacturing at 34 per cent and agriculture at 21 per cent. Government is the major investor in the state with 51 per cent of total investments, followed by private Indian investors at 29.9 per cent and foreign private investors at 14.9 per cent. Tamil Nadu has a network of about 113 industrial parks and estates offering developed plots with supporting infrastructure. According to the publications of the Tamil Nadu government the Gross State Domestic Product at Constant Prices (Base year 2004�2005) for the year 2011�2012 is ₹ 428,109 crores, an increase of 9.39 per cent over the previous year. The per capita income at current price is ₹ 72,993
Tamil Nadu has seen major investments in the automobile industry over many decades manufacturing cars, railway coaches, battle-tanks, tractors, motorcycles, automobile spare parts and accessories, tyres and heavy vehicles. Chennai is known as the Detroit of India. Major global automobile companies including BMW, Ford, Robert Bosch, Renault-Nissan, Caterpillar, Hyundai, Mitsubishi Motors, and Michelin as well as Indian automobile majors like Mahindra & Mahindra, Ashok Leyland, Hindustan Motors, TVS Motors, Irizar-TVS, Royal Enfield, MRF, Apollo Tyres, TAFE Tractors, DaimlerChrysler AG Company also invested (₹) 4 billion for establishing new plant in Tamil Nadu. Karur is a hub for Bus body building industries..
ROAD: Tamil Nadu has a transportation system that connects all parts of the state. Tamil Nadu is served by an extensive road network, providing links between urban centres, agricultural market-places and rural areas. There are 29 national highways in the state, covering a total distance of 5,006.14 km (3,110.67 mi). The state is also a terminus for the Golden Quadrilateral project, that connects four major metropolitan cities in India (Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata). The state has a total road length of 167,000 km (104,000 mi), of which 60,628 km (37,672 mi) are maintained by Highways Department. This is nearly 2.5 times higher than the density of all-India road network. The major road junctions are Chennai, Salem Madurai, Trichy, Coimbatore, Tirunelveli, Tuticorin, Karur, Krishnagiri, Dindigul, Kanniyakumari. Road transport is provided by state owned Tamil Nadu State Transport Corporation and State Express Transport Corporation. Almost every part of state is well connected by buses 24 hours a day. The State accounted for 13.6 per cent of all accidents in the country With 66,238 accidents in 2013, 11.3 per cent of all road accident deaths and 15 per cent of all road-related injuries, according to data provided by the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways. Although Tamil Nadu accounts for the highest number of road accidents in India, it also leads in having reduced the number of fatalities in accident-prone areas with deployment of personnel and a sustained awareness campaign. The number of deaths at areas decreased from 1,053 in 2011 to 881 in 2012 and 867 in 2013.
RAIL: Tamil Nadu has a well-developed rail network as part of Southern Railway. Headquartered at Chennai, the Southern Railway network extends over a large area of India's southern peninsula, covering the states of Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Puducherry, a small portion of Karnataka and a small portion of Andhra Pradesh. Express trains connect the state capital Chennai with Mumbai, Delhi, and Kolkatta. Chennai Central is gateway for train towards north whereas Chennai Egmore serves as gateway for south. Tamil Nadu has a total railway track length of 5,952 km (3,698 mi) and there are 532 railway stations in the state. The network connects the state with most major cities in India. The Nilgiri Mountain Railway is one of the UNESCO World Heritage Site connecting Ooty on the hills and Mettupalayam in the foot hills which is in turn connected to Coimbatore city. The centenary old Pamban Bridge over sea connecting Rameswaram in Pamban island to mainland is an engineering marvel. It is one of the oldest cantilever bridges still in operation, the double-leaf bascule bridge section can be raised to let boats and small ships pass through Palk Strait in Indian Ocean. Chennai has a well-established suburban railway network and is constructing a Chennai Metro. Major railway junctions( 4 & above lines ) in the state are Chennai, Coimbatore, Madurai, Salem, Erode, Dindigul, Karur, Nagercoil, Tiruchirapalli and Tirunelveli. Chennai Central, Chennai Egmore, Salem Junction, Tiruchirappalli Junction, Madurai Junction, Coimbatore Junction are upgraded to A1 grade level. Loco sheds are located at Erode, Arakkonam, Royapuram in Chennai and Tondaiyarpet in Chennai, Ponmalai (GOC) in Tiruchirappalli as Diesel Loco Shed. The loco shed at Erode is a huge composite Electric and Diesel Loco shed. MRTS which covers from Chennai Beach to Velachery
AIR: The first flight in the country was from Mumbai to Chennai. Tamil Nadu has 4 international airports at Chennai, Coimbatore, Tiruchirapalli and Madurai and a domestic terminal in Chennai called "Kamaraj Terminal" while other two domestic airports are at Tuticorin and Salem. Chennai's Anna International Airport is a major international airport that is connected with 19 countries with more than 169 direct flights every week. This is the third largest airport in India after Mumbai and Delhi and has a passenger growth of 18 per cent. Other international and customs airports present in the state are Coimbatore International Airport, Tiruchirapalli International Airport and Madurai Airport. Salem Airport and Tuticorin Airport are domestic airports with daily flights. Increased industrial activity has given rise to an increase in passenger traffic as well as freight movement which has been growing at over 18 per cent per year. Besides civilian airports, Tamil Nadu also hosts four air bases for the Indian Air Force at Thanjavur, Tambram, Sulur and Madurai; and two naval air stations INS Rajali and INS Parundu for Indian SEAPORT: Tamil Nadu has three major seaports located at Chennai, Ennore and Tuticorin, as well as seven other minor ports including Cuddalore and Nagapattinam. Chennai Port is an artificial harbour situated on the Coromandel Coast and is the second principal port in the country for handling containers. Ennore Port handles all the coal and ore traffic in Tamil Nadu. The volume of cargo in the ports grew by 13 per cent during 2005
The tourism industry of Tamil Nadu is the largest in India, with an annual growth rate of 16 per cent. Tourism in Tamil Nadu is promoted by Tamil Nadu Tourism Development Corporation (TTDC), a Government of Tamil Nadu undertaking.According to Ministry of Tourism statistics, 4.66 million foreign and 327.6 million domestic tourists visited the state in 2014 making it the most visited state in India both domestic and foreign tourists. The state boasts some of the grand Hindu temples built in Dravidian architecture. The Brihadishwara Temple in Thanjavur and Gangaikonda Cholapuram built by the Cholas, the Airavateswara temple in Darasuram and the Shore Temple, along with the collection of other monuments in Mahabalipuram (also called Mamallapuram) have been declared as UNESCO World Heritage Sites.Madurai Meenakshi Amman Temple, Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple, Srirangam, Tiruchirappalli is the largest functioning temple in the Tamil Nadu, Rameshwaram whose temple walk-ways corridors are the longest 1.2 km (0.75 mi) of all Indian temples, Chidambaram, Thiruvannaamalai, Kanchipuram and Six Abodes of Murugan are amongst the important pilgrimage sites for Hindus. Other popular temples in Tamil Nadu include those in Tiruvarur, Kumbakonam, Sankarankovil, Srivilliputhur, Tiruttani, Namakkal, Vellore, Karur, Bhavani, Pariyur, Bannari, Chennai, Coimbatore and Kanniyakumari.
Tamil Nadu is also home to hill stations like Udhagamandalam (Ooty), Kodaikanal, Yercaud, Coonoor, Topslip, Valparai and Yelagiri. The Nilgiri hills, Palani hills, Shevaroy hills, Kolli Hills and Cardamom hills are all abodes of thick forests and wildlife. Tamil Nadu has many national parks, biosphere reserves, wildlife sanctuaries, elephant and bird sanctuaries, reserved forests, zoos and crocodile farms. Prominent among them are Mudumalai National Park, The Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve, Anaimalai Wildlife Sanctuary, Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary and Arignar Anna Zoological Park.The mangrove forests at Pichavaram are also eco-tourism spots of importance. The prominent waterfalls in the state are Courtallam, Hogenakkal, Papanasam, Manimuthar, Thirparappu, Pykara and Silver Cascade. The Chettinad region of the state is renowned for its palatial houses and cuisine. With cheap and quality tertiary medical care available in Chennai, Coimbatore, Madurai and Vellore, Tamil Nadu has the largest numbers in medical tourism in India. Kanyakumari, the southernmost tip of peninsular India, is famous for its beautiful sunrise, Vivekananda Rock Memorial and Thiruvalluvar's statue built off the coastline. Marina Beach in Chennai is one of the longest beaches in the world. The stretch of beaches from Chennai to Mahabalipuram are home to many resorts, theme parks and eateries.