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Telangana State is a newly formed state and named as 29th state of south India on 2nd June 2014. It has an area of 114,840 Square Km (44,340 sq. mi), and a population of 35,286,757 (according to 2011 census), it ranked as 12th largest state in southern region. Mostly the area a part of the Hyderabad Medak and Warangal which was ruled by the nizams during British raj before the year 1947. IN 1956 Andhra state was merged with Telangana region when Hyderabad as the state to form Andhrapradesh. After the success in Telangana movement central government stated 29th state of south India as Telangana. And India consisting of the ten north-western districts of Andhra Pradesh with Hyderabad as its Joint capital for 10 years. It mean Hyderabad will be served as joint capital for both the state for 10 years until 2024. Telangana State is boarded by the Andhra Pradesh to the south and east, state of Maharashtra to the north and north-west, state of Karnataka to the west and state of Chhattisgarh to the north-east. Hyderabad, Warangal, Nizamabad, Karimnagar and Ramagundam are the major cities in Telangana.
The word Telangana was derived from the word Trilinga according to Hindu legend form of Shiva lingam from a three mountains. 1. Kaleshwaram 2. Srisailam and 3. Draksharama. This marked the boundaries of the Trilingadesa, later it was called as Telinga, then Telunga and now it�s Telugu. The name Telangana was natives of telugu speaking region at Hyderabad state from its Marathi speaking one Marathwada. Earliest uses of a word similar to telangana can be seen in a name of Malik Maqbul in (14th century C.E.). Who was called the Tilangani, which implies that he was from Tilangana known as commander of Great Warangal Fort.
The birth of Telangana as the 29th State of the Indian Republic marks both a beginning and an end. It was the end of a prolonged struggle of six decades by the people of Telangana to carve out a separate political and cultural identity for themselves. It was also the beginning of a process of reinventing a new identity, policies and programmes to address the special needs of the area and to suit the genius of the people of Telangana. Many of the Government schemes designed in the past suffered from an inherent bias, and hence needed a correction through a conscious process of reorientation and reformulation. This was the biggest challenge that confronted the Government of the new State. These sentiments were echoed by Sri Eatala Rajender, Hon�ble Finance Minister, in the maiden budget speech on November 5, 2014, in the following words: �Our State of Telangana is the result of a prolonged struggle by two generations of people over six decades, during which many have lost whatever little they had and some even their lives. We salute them all and also place on record the critical contribution made by the Hon�ble Chief Minister Sri.K.Chandrasekhar Rao, who successfully led all sections of people in carving out separate Telangana State.�
�This context commands the Government to ensure judicious use of resources for fulfi lling the hopes and aspirations of not only the present but also future generations. Accordingly, the Government has presented the budget keeping in view the importance of ensuring a bright future for the people of Telangana.� �We are aware of the opportunities lost and problems accumulated as a result of deliberate neglect of Telangana.The immense task before the Government is not only correcting the historic wrongs but also quickly imparting social and economic justice for the vast majority of the people.� �Telangana has suffered on all fronts. With the realisation of separate Statehood, people have realised the fruits of self-rule.
Though we have direct control over the affairs of the State, a number of indirect forces are bent on creating hurdles in our efforts to develop the State.� �The Government is committed and determined that with the active support of people, all the hurdles in the path of development will be overcome. I am confi dent that the spirit and dedication with which separate Statehood has been achieved will continue to drive the State towards realising the goal of �Bangaru Telangana.�� �For reconstructing the State, we need to reinvent and reorient Telangana. As everyone will appreciate, there are no easy solutions or short cuts. Serious and concerted action is needed to address the past neglect.�
SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROFILE OF TELANGANA & GROWTH TRAJECTORY
The new State of Telangana, with a geographical area of 1,14,840 sq. kilometers and having a population of 3,51,93,978 (2011 census), is the twelfth largest State in terms of both area and the size of population in the country. The State is bordered by Maharashtra and Chhattisgarh in the north, Karnataka in the west and Andhra Pradesh in the south and the east. The State is strategically located in the Deccan plateau in a semi arid region. The climate is predominantly hot and dry. Two major perennial rivers, the Krishna and the Godavari passing through the State. The catchment area of the Godavari lying in the State is 79% and that of the Krishna is 68.5%. Despite large proportion of the catchment of these major rivers lying in the State, the present utilisation of these river waters in the State is low because of the neglect of the region in the erstwhile State of Andhra Pradesh. The demographic, social and economic profi le of the State is presented below
Population The population of the State is predominantly rural with 61.33% of people residing in rural areas and the remaining 38.67% of people residing in urban areas. While the growth of total population in the State has moderated to 13.58% in the decade 2001 to 2011 from 18.77% in the preceding decade, the growth of the urban population has been witnessing a signifi cant increase. Urban population in the State grew by 38.12% in the decade 2001 to 2011 as compared with 25.13% in the preceding decade. In sharp contrast, rural population in the State grew by a modest 2.13% as per the 2011 census. The growth of urban population is mainly on account of migration from Seemandhra region of the erstwhile State of Andhra Pradesh and partly on account of migration from within the State and other parts of the country. The capital city of Hyderabad, which is entirely urban, accounts for over 29% of the State�s total urban population (2011). The rapid growth of urban population and its concentration mostly in the Hyderabad metropolitan area has stretched the urban infrastructure to the hilt.
Density of Population The density of population in the State ranges from the lowest of 170 per sq. kilometer in Adilabad district to the highest of 18,172 per sq. kilometers in Hyderabad district. The districts of Adilabad, Khammam and Mahabubnagar have lower density of population of 170, 175 and 220 per sq. kilometer respectively, as compared with the State average of 307 per sq. kilometer.
Sex Ratio of Population The sex ratio of the State, defi ned as the number of females per 1,000 males at 988 is higher than the national average of 943 in 2011. One distinguishing feature is that the sex ratio in the districts of Nizamabad, Adilabad, Karimnagar and Khammam is over 1,000. The sex ratio in the State has been witnessing an improvement from 967 in 1991 to 971 in 2001 and further to 988 in 2011. Despite a favourable sex ratio of the total population, the sex ratio of children in the age group of 0-6 years is a matter of concern. The sex ratio of children declined from 957 in 2001 to 933 in 2011. The sex ratio of the SC population at 1,008 in 2011 is much higher than the state average of 988. With the exception of the districts of Rangareddy, Hyderabad and Mahabubnagar, in all the remaining seven districts of the State, the sex ratio of SC population is higher than 1000. The sex ratio of ST population at 980 is marginally lower than the state average but it is much higher in Adilabad (1003), Nizamabad (1017) and Khammam (1022).
Social Composition of Population The population of the State consists predominantly of backward classes and people belonging to the lower rung of the social ladder. Of the total population of the State, scheduled castes constitute 15.44% and the scheduled tribes 9.34%. The percentage of scheduled tribes population is higher than the national average of 8.60%. There has been a signifi cant increase in the percentage of tribal population in total population from 2.81% in 1961 to 8.19% in 1981 and further to 9.34% in 2011. The increase is mainly on account of the inclusion of certain castes under the category of scheduled tribes. Nearly 80% of the State�s population consists of backward classes including SCs, STs, minorities and other backward classes. The higher percentage of backward classes in total population casts a greater responsibility on the State Government in terms of empowering and assisting them to come up to the level of other castes.
Literacy The literacy rate in the State at 66.46% is lower than the national average of 72.99%. It is a matter of concern that the literacy rate is lower than those in some of the lower income States like Odisha, Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh. The literacy rate in the State varies from 55.04% in Mahbubnagar to 83.25% in Hyderabad. There are also huge differences in the literacy rates of males and females. While the male literacy rate is 74.95%, the female literacy rate is much lower at 57.92%. The literacy rates among the SCs and STs is 58.90 and 49.51%, respectively. Improving the literacy rate in general and that of the SCs and STs in particular is a major challenge before the State Government.
Health Indicators A number of health indicators in Telangana need to be addressed for improvement. In six out of ten districts of the State, the infant mortality rate (IMR) is found to be much higher than the national average of 40. The maternal mortality rate (MMR) at 152 is very high in the district of Adilabad as compared with the national average of 167. The percentage of home deliveries at 11.5 percent as per District Level Household Survey (2012-13) conducted by the International Institute for Population Sciences, Mumbai is found to be very high in the backward district of Adilabad.
Growth Trajectory Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) or state income is the most important indicator for measuring the economic growth of a state. Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP), is a measure in monetary terms the sum total volume of all goods and services produced during a given period of time within the geographical boundaries of the state, accounted without duplication. The estimates of economy, over a period of time, reveal the extent and direction of changes in the level of economic development and also the performance made by various sectors towards the overall economy. The sectoral composition of SDP gives an idea of the relative position of different sectors in the economy over a period of time which not only indicates the real structural changes taking place in the economy but also facilitates formulation of policies for overall economic development. When studied in relation to the total population of the state, they indicate the level of per capita net output of goods and services available or the relative standard of living of the people in the State. These are referred as estimates of Per Capita Income (PCI).
Per Capita Income The Per Capita income gives a better idea about the level of development in a State, which is a proxy indicator for the standard of living of the people. As per the Advance Estimates for 2014-15, the Per Capita Income of the State at current prices increased to Rs. 1,03,889, from Rs. 95,361 in 2013-14, registering a growth of 8.9 per cent, which is higher than the National Per Capita Income of Rs.88,533. The Per Capita Income at constant (2004-05) prices has also gone up from Rs. 48,881 in 2013-14 to Rs. 51,017 in 2014-15, registering a growth rate of 4.4 per cent. The Per Capita Income in the State has remained consistently higher than the National Per Capita Income throughout the period from 2004-05 to 2014-15. The Per Capita Income of the state increased from about Rs. 24,409 in 2004-05 to Rs. 1,03,889 at current prices in 2014-15. The higher per capita income of the state is not only due to the higher growth in Gross State Domestic Product but it can also be attributed to faster deceleration in the population growth. In Telangana, six out of ten districts have per capita income lower than the State Per Capita Income. The districts recording higher per capita income than the state average are Hyderabad, Rangareddy, Medak and Khammam. This clearly shows that economic growth is unevenly distributed in the state and more concentrated in and around urban areas.
Sustainable growth in Agriculture continues to be core agenda for both the Central and State Governments. Agriculture sector is mainly rainfed and depends to a signifi cant extent on the depleting ground water. As nearly 55.49 percent of the State�s population is dependent on some form of farm activity for livelihoods, it is imperative to increase the farm incomes and ensuring sustainable growth in Telangana to reduce poverty. Highest priority is accorded to the Agriculture Sector in the State with the objective of shifting the excess labour force from this sector to other non-farm rural sectors such as rural industry through skill development. Ensuring food security and provision of gainful employment continues to be the essential premise of the socio economic development and employment guarantee schemes like MGNREGS and Rural livelihoods programmes. The share of agriculture to state GSDP in 2014-15 is 9.3 percent at current prices. Agriculture and allied sectors are constituted by crop husbandry (agriculture, horticulture), livestock, forestry and fi sheries sectors. The share of crop husbandry sector in agriculture and allied sector GSDP is declining overtime. The share of livestock sector is around one third of total agriculture and allied sectors of GSDP during 2014-15. The growth of this sector is stable as compared to that of crop sector during the last decade. However, there has been a slow down in its growth during the last two years. The growth of livestock sector gains signifi cance in the light of the decline in the share of agriculture and allied activities share in GSDP.
Horticulture is identifi ed as one of the growth engines in the farm sector. It has been identifi ed as one of the �focus areas� for development of the state. Being traditionally rich with horticulture resources, the State having favourable climatic conditions suiting various horticulture crops, these resources are further blended with latest technology and practice to meet the global demand for qualitative produce, thus making a favourable destination for global sourcing. Horticulture is a signifi cant contributor to the Telangana State GSDP. Total area under Horticulture crops covers 10.86 lakh hectares with a total production of 112.56 lakh MTs. Major fruit crops in the state are Mango, Citrus, Banana, Guava and Papaya while vegetables like Tomato, Brinjal, Bhendi and various varieties of Gourds are predominant. Chillies, Turmeric and Coriander are important spices. Coconut, Cashew and Oil palm constitute major plantation crops.
The targeted area under Horticulture for the next fi ve years (2018- 19) Action Plan is 14.48 lakh Ha, with estimated production of 152.31 lakh MTs. In India, under cultivated area Telangana ranks 3rd in fruits and 1st in Turmeric. The Department of Horticulture is implementing various schemes with main thrust on core programmes to give a boost to horticulture sector and to tap available potential for the development of horticulture sector in the State. The major programmes are Micro Irrigation Project (MIP),Mission for Integrated Development of Horticulture (MIDH), Rastriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY), National Mission for Oilseeds and Oil Palm Mission (NMOOP) and State Plan Schemes. During the year 2014-15, an amount of Rs.452.75 crores were allotted for Promotion of horticulture Activities, Beautifi cation of Public Gardens and the construction of Poly houses in 1000 acres on 75% subsidy @ Rs.29.52 Lakhs per acre, limited to 3 acres per benefi ciary during 2014-15.
Animal Husbandry sector consists of bovine, ovine, pig and poultry population. Bovine population is further classifi ed into cattle and buffaloes and ovine population into sheep and goat. Telangana is blessed with rich livestock resources especially Cattle and Sheep population accounting to 5.52% of Country�s population. The State stands 10th in Livestock population 1st in Sheep population, 12th in Goat population, 5th in Poultry, 13th in Bovine population and 17th in Pig population, in the country as per the Livestock Census, 2007. About 29 Lakh families in Telanagana State are engaged in livestock sector for their livelihood. The value of livestock produce is estimated to be Rs. 30584 crores at current prices and Livestock contributes 7.1% to the Gross State Domestic Product and formed 39.69% of the Agriculture sector in 2014-15(Advance Estimates). With an annual output of 1006 crore eggs, Telangana stands 3rd in egg production in the country. Every eigth egg in the country comes from Telangana. Annual meat production of 4.46 Lakh Mts Telangana stands 6th in the country and annual production of 39.24 lakh Mts of milk, Telangana occupies 13th position in the country in milk production. The mandate of the Department is to increase the availability of Animal origin foods like milk, meat and eggs to human population for consumption through scientifi c breeding, feeding and disease management of livestock. Animal Husbandry schemes have been formulated to pursue the well-laid National policies aimed at improving livestock production, fi ghting protein hunger, improving nutritional standards of human population and provision of technical support for the maintenance and improvement of livestock.
EXPANDING THE FOREST COVER
Forests cover is critical for living environment, as it infl uences the quality and quantity of air and water and plays a major role in supporting livelihood activities of rural poor, contributing to the economy of the State, mitigating the threat of Global warming besides conserving the fertile soil and vulnerable Wildlife. Forestry and logging contribution (P.E) to state GSDP at current prices is 0.9% and 5.02% in Agriculture sector GSDP for the year 2014-15. The core objective of forest sector is to enhance green cover by integrating it with livelihood. The Geographical area of the Telangana State is 1,14,865 Sq.Kms and stood at 12th position in India, having 29,242 Sq. Kms which amounts to 25.46% including social forestry. Out of 29,242 Sq.kms Reserved Forest area is 21,024 Sq.Kms, Protected forest forms 7468 Sq.Kms and the rest of 750 Sq.Kms are unclassifi ed. The total revenue achieved from forest produce in the state upto December 2014 is Rs.54.16 crore.
The State of Telangana is endowed with rich diversity of fl ora and fauna with over 2939 plant species, 365 bird species, 103 mammal species, 28 reptile species and 21 amphibian species in addition to large number of Invertebrate species.
Important endangered species found in the state are Tiger, Panther, Indian Gaur, Four Horned Antelope, Black Buck, Marsh Crocodile etc. The state is also bestowed with dense Teak forest along the banks of river Godavari right from Nizamabad through Adilabad, Karimnagar, Warangal up to Khammam district. These forests are home for several deciduous species like Nallamaddi, Yegisa, Rose wood, Narepa, Bamboo in addition to Teak. As per Revised 2002 State Forest Policy, Vision 2020, Forest Department implements various development schemes to protect and develop existing forests, to improve its productivity and economic value.
The main objectives of programmes are Community Forest Management, National Afforestation Programme (NAP) (Centrally Sponsored), RIDF Projects, Soil & Moisture Conservation, Social Forestry, Wildlife Management and Human Resource Development are enriching existing low density forests and alleviating rural poverty. Contour Trenches, Rock fi ll dams, Percolation tanks etc, in forest areas. These structures help in recharging of ground water in turn improve forest vegetation besides stabilizing the status of agriculture in adjoining fi elds. Keeping in view recent trends, the department has laid special emphasis on Forest Research to conduct experiments, improve nursery and plantation techniques, vegetative propagation, seed production and in various silvicultural practices.
Monitoring of vegetation (Forest) Canopy Cover Density, Forest Fire Risk Zonisation Mapping, Mapping all forest areas with site suitability, Re-locating & demarcating forest boundaries and inventory of forest resources are some of the major and important activities taken up by the department using latest information technology which includes GIS. Almost all programmes/schemes of the Forest Department are being implemented through participation of local people, Vana Samrakshna Samithis (VSS) and Eco-Development Committees (EDCs) in Protected Areas and Watershed Development Committees in River Valley Project. Forest Development Agencies are federations of all VSS within a Territorial / Wildlife Forest Divisions under the Societies Registration Act. It operates in a 3-Tier system with the State Forest Development Agency (SFDA) at the State Level, Forest Development Agency (FDA) at Divisional Level and Vana Samrakshana Samithi (VSS) at Village Level.
ECONOMIC INFRASTRUCTURE AND INDUSTRIAL POLICY
Infrastructure is the basic physical and organizational structure needed for the operation of a society or enterprise, or the services and facilities necessary for economic growth in setting up an enabling platform for sustainable economic development. Economic infrastructure, particularly, lays emphasis on energy, irrigation, roads, transport, airports etc. A fast growing economy warrants an even faster development of infrastructure. Besides Government efforts, defi ning the role of private sector plays a vital role in the provision of infrastructure through Public Private Partnerships and exclusive role of private sectors in certain areas such as transport, communications, entertainment etc., accelerates the pace of infrastructure growth.
ENERGY Telengana is the one of the top IT exporting states of India and about one third of the bulk drugs in the country are manufactured in the state. Besides these, the economy of Telangana is also dependent upon agriculture. Thereby Telangana is amongst the highest power intensive states in India, with a per capita power consumption of over 985 units as against an all India average of 917 units (as on FY 2012-13). Going forward, energy requirement is expected to see exponential growth owing to various factors such as buoyant growth in capital city and other urban centers, high domestic and agricultural consumption and upcoming major projects such as Hyderabad Metro Rail and Hyderabad-Nagpur industrial corridor. Telengana plans to meet the demand by a number of capacity additions in pipeline and enhancing the energy availability from the existing sources. The gaps and challenges across the power value chain of Fuel � Generation-Transmission �Distribution must be addressed to meet the energy requirement.
The current energy availability (FY 14-15) for Telangana from various sources are 45795MU as detailed in Figure.1. Telengana has been allocated 53.89% of TSGENCO and APGENCO stations. Post expiry of PPAs, no capacity would be available from APGENCO stations while 100% capacity of TSGENCO plants would be available.
The demand supply projections for the next fi ve years are as detailed in Table.1. The energy requirement takes into account, assured 7 hours of power supply to agriculture customers and 6% increase in agriculture sales every year and ensuring 24x7 power supply to all other customers. The urban development in the capital city of Hyderabad and planned urbanization in other centres of Nizamabad, Karimnagar and Warangal along with the upcoming major projects such as Hyderabad Metro Rail, Hyderabad Information Technology Investment Region (ITIR) and Hyderabad-Nagpur industrial corridor, lift irrigation schemes adds to the additional energy requirement.
The transmission losses were 3.59% and transmission system availability was 99.94% in FY 13-14. However, there is a need to ensure augmentation and strengthening of transmission infrastructure at intra-state and inter-state level, failing which power supply cannot be improved. There are two distribution companies namely -TSSPDCL and TSNPDCL that supply electricity to consumers in Telangana. The distribution companies cater to 1.12 crores customers.
NEW INDUSTRIAL POLICY
The State of Telangana is home to large manufacturing industries in bulk drugs, pharmaceuticals, agro-processing, cement & mineral-based industries, high precision engineering, textiles, leather, iron & steel, gems & jewelry, biotechnology, defence etc. The State is one among the major industrial states in the Country ranked 6th in terms of industries and ranked 8th in terms of Gross Value Added from industries.The Government is promoting industrial incentive policy to create quality infrastructure coupled with congenial industrial environment to make Telangana an attractive investment destination for both foreign and domestic investors, with special emphasis on creating an enabling eco-system for women entrepreneurs and for those from the Scheduled Castes (SC) and Scheduled Tribes (ST).
The growth of industrial sector in Telangana has been impressive. During the year 2014-15(Advanced Estimate), the growth of industries surged to 4.1 percent from 0.13 percent of 2013-14 at constant (2004-05) prices due to the incentives being offered under the new Government�s Industrial Policy Framework, 2014. During the decade 2004-05 to 2014-15 the State registered an average growth rate 7.8 % at constant prices (2004-05). However, the growth path of the State exhibited greater fl uctuations than that of all India. Manufacturing sector growth across districts indicates that seven districts other than Medak, Rangareddy and Hyderabad require specifi c strategies and policy interventions. The growth in sub-sectors indicates a fall in the unregistered manufacturing sector represented by the micro and small enterprises, electricity, gas & water supply, and construction.
HYDERABAD AS A GLOBAL CITY
The information technology revolution, economic globalization and the political leadership have been catalysts in nurturing Hyderabad as one of the nerve centres of global economy. The past decades have rapidly transformed Hyderabad. The IT growth led to the formation of HITEC city with IT enterprise agglomerates providing large scale services, employment and investment opportunities. However, with the rapid pace of development and infl ux of migrant population from other regions of the country, an uneven geography of development has taken place. While Hyderabad has around 1 crore population , it lacks adequate infrastructure and amenities. It is imperative that focus needs to be on improving City�s infrastructure and urban amenities to meet city�s aspirations of becoming a global city.
DEVELOPMENT OF WORLD CLASS INFRASTRUCTURE
A precondition for a global city is to periodically upgrade its infrastructure to the changing international standards, through a process of convergence. Towns this end, the urban local bodies as agencies of Hyderabad are preparing an integrated action plan. The Hyderabad Metropolitan Development Authority (HMDA) is aimed at planning, co-ordination, and supervising, promoting and securing planned development of the Hyderabad Metropolitan Region.