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Tripura is a state in North-East India which borders Bangladesh, Mizoram and Assam. It is surrounded by Bangladesh on its north, south and west: the length of its international border is 856 km (84 per cent of its total border). It shares a 53 km long border with Assam and a 109 km long border with Mizoram. The state is connected with the rest of India by only one road (NH- 44) that runs through the hills to the border of Karimganj District in Assam and then winds through the states of Meghalaya, Assam and North Bengal to Calcutta. The State of Tripura is located between 22o 56� and 24o 32� North latitude and between 90o 09� and 92 o 20� East latitude. Tripura is a landlocked State. The total length of its border is 1018 km. It is connected with the mainland through Assam over a small strip of border of 53 km characterized with unfavorable terrain.
For administrative convenience and decentralisation of power Tripura which had once been a single district only is now divided into altogether eight districts, twenty three subdivisions and forty five rural development blocks. Besides, a special feature of the state is the vibrant existence of an Autonomous District Council (ADC) for tribals based on 6th schedule of the Indian constitution. The ADC in Tripura encompasses 68.10% of the state's total geographical territory and is home to roughly one third of the state's population.
The state of Tripura exhibit a wide array of sedimentary rocks characteristics of marine-mixedfluvial type origin ranging age from upper most Oligocene (38 million years from present time) to Recent period. These sediments, according to GSI, have been laid down in the Surma basin during Tertiary age (which lasted for 65 million years) in a wide range of environmental conditions governed by local tectonic movement. Tectonically, the region now comprises a series of sub-parallel arquate, elongated, doubly plunging folds arrange in north south direction. These folds for anticlines separated by wide flat sinclines.
The topography is immature. The major geomorphic elements observed in the area are both structural and topographic �highs� and �depressions�, �flats� and �slopes�, sculptured on the topographic surface in a linear and areal fashion. In Tripura the topographic highs and lows are in accordance with the normal first order structural elements. The state is dissected by a number of broad and long valleys, viz.,Agartala-Udaipur-Sabrum, Khowai-Telimura- Amarpur-Silachari, Kamalpur-Ambasa-Candachara, Kailashar-Kumarghat, Dharmanagar-Panisagar, etc. located between the N-S trending parallel to sub-parallel antiformal hill ranges (topographic highs), such as the Baramura-Deotamura Ranges, the Atharamura Ranges, the Langtarai Ranges, the Shakan Ranges, and the anticlinal ranges. There are a few disconnected open and shallow anticlinal ridges, viz. Gazalia-Mamunbhagna anticline, Sonamura anticline, Agartala dome, etc. Besides, small-scale elements like the spurs, keels, and the moderate gorges are the other geomorphic elements formed. Generally, the valleys are broad and flat with low to moderate Bed Relief Index (BRI), which are separated from the adjacent highs with domes and conical peaks. Some of the peaks of the hills are also flat. The R. L. differences between the elevations of the peaks and valleys increases eastwards constantly.
The general altitude of the state varies between 16 m to 600 m above MSL. The drainage patterns are of �dendritic�, �parallel� to �sub-parallel� and �rectangular� types. The stream channel patterns lie mainly within the �piedmont�, �straight� and �meandering reaches. The �braided reach� is, however, not noticed along the course of the stream channels. The drainage flows down along north by the Khowai, Dolai, Manu, Juri and Langai Rivers; west by the Gumti River and southwest by the Fenny and Muhari Rivers.
The soil types of Tripura can be classified under five major groups, of which Red loam and sandy loam soil occupies 43.07 percent of the total area followed by Reddish yellow brown sandy soils (33.06%), the other three Older alluvial Soils, Younger alluvial soils and Lateritic soilsgroups occupy less than 10 percent each.
A more sensitive element of climate is the variation in rainfall. It varies not only from place to place or from year to year, but also between seasons. Annual rainfall ranges from 1922 mm to 2855 mm. The rainfall generally increases from south-west to north-east. There is a big gap in the rainfall content in southern central part around Amarpur, which is surrounded by 1500 mm. isohytes. The north-eastern part of the state around Dharamnagar gets maximum rainfall. Most of the rain occurs during the months April-June and July to September. This period is generally referred to as the Kharif season and is the major agricultural season of the State. The factors governing rainfall are the seasonal changes in the direction of wind and the presence of cool upper air current over the given parts of the State. During the Kharif season, large depressions develop over one or the other parts of the State.
The relationship between rainfall, temperature and farming is suitable to grow paddy crops in the plains, and bamboo trees and jhum cultivation on hills along with the scope for plantation of rubber, coffee, cashewnut, coconut and other evergreen and deciduous plants on the hilly and tilla land. The state represents hypothermic soil temperature regime. On the basis of variation in rain fall, potential and actual evapotranspiration and length of crop growing period and their interrelationship.
Socio Economic Profile
The state of Tripura resides at the far north-eastern corner of India. It has spread over a small expanse of about 10,000 kilometer square, which makes it one of the smallest states in India. With a rich and colorful historical background and equally vibrant culture, the state of Tripura shines on the map of India. Although small in area, its population density of about 300 ranks medium as compared to other states. Also the population is growing at satisfactory rate according to 2011 Tripura census, which is great for the state progress. Population wise, the state ranks 22nd in India, with around 3 lakh people residing in it. The remote state has also shown rapid growth in its literacy rate since the previous census.
The previous growth rate of about 60- 80% has been raised to 80-90%, with subsequent increase in female literacy. Although females are comparatively less in number as compared to the male count, efforts are being taken to balance the gender ratio, which is currently above 900. Due to lack of urbanization, the population residing in rural area is more as compared to the urban land. About 3/4th of population lives in villages. But, it is noteworthy, that the population growth in villages is far less as compared to the urban areas. Agartala is the state capital of Tripura, and also one of the very few urban regions. Dharmanagar, Udaipur, Badharghat are some other popular towns of Tripura. The culture of Tripura is a mix of numerous other civilizations, including Bengali and Manipuri. The language widely spoken is mostly Bengali. The people of Tripura are widely famous for their attires, which include vibrant combination of red, white and green complemented with bold ethnic jewelry.
Tripura's gross state domestic product for
2010�11 was ₹129.47 billion (US$2.0 billion) at constant price
(2004�05), recording 5.71 per cent growth over the previous year. In
the same period, the GDP of India was ₹48778.42 billion (US$740
billion), with a growth rate of 8.55 per cent. Annual per capita
income at current price of the state was ₹38493 (US$580), compared
to the national per capita income ₹44345 (US$670). In 2009, the
tertiary sector of the economy (service industries) was the largest
contributor to the gross domestic product of the state, contributing
53.98 per cent of the state's economy compared to 23.07 per cent
from the primary sector (agriculture, forestry, mining) and 22.95
per cent from the secondary sector (industrial and manufacturing).
According to the Economic Census of 2005, after agriculture, the
maximum number of workers were engaged in retail trade (28.21 per
cent of total non-agricultural workforce), followed by manufacturing
(18.60 per cent), public administration (14.54 per cent), and
education (14.40 per cent).
Tripura is an agrarian state with more than half of the population dependent on agriculture and allied activities. However, due to hilly terrain and forest cover, only 27 per cent of the land is available for cultivation. Rice, the major crop of the state, is cultivated in 91 per cent of the cropped area. According to the Directorate of Economics & Statistics, Government of Tripura, in 2009�10, potato, sugarcane, mesta, pulses and jute were the other major crops cultivated in the state. Jackfruit and pineapple top the list of horticultural products. Traditionally, most of the indigenous population practised jhum method (a type of slash-and-burn) of cultivation. The number of people dependent on jhum has declined over the years.
Pisciculture has made significant advances in the state. At the end of 2009�10, the state produced a surplus of 104.3 million fish seeds. Rubber and tea are the important cash crops of the state. Tripura ranks second only to Kerala in the production of natural rubber in the country. The state is known for its handicraft, particularly hand-woven cotton fabric, wood carvings, and bamboo products. High quality timber including sal, garjan, teak and gamar are found abundantly in the forests of Tripura. Tata Trusts signed a pact with Government of Tripura in July, 2015 to improve fisheries and dairy in the state
he industrial sector of the state continues to be highly underdeveloped � brickfields and tea industry are the only two organised sectors.Tripura has considerable reservoirs of natural gas. According to estimates by Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC), the state has 400 billion metres3 reserves of natural gas, with 16 billion metres3 is recoverable. ONGC produced 480 million metres3 natural gas in the state, in 2006�07. In 2011 and 2013, new large discoveries of natural gas were announced by ONGC. Tourism industry in the state is growing � the revenue earned in tourism sector crossed ₹10 million (US$150,000) for the first time in 2009�10, and surpassed ₹15 million (US$230,000) in 2010�11. Although Bangladesh is in a trade deficit with India, its export to Tripura is significantly more than import from the state; a report in the newspaper The Hindu estimated Bangladesh exported commodities valued at about ₹3.5 billion (US$53 million) to the state in 2012, as opposed to "very small quantity" of import. Alongside legal international trade, unofficial and informal cross-border trade is rampant. In a research paper published by the Institute of Developing Economies in 2004, the dependence of Tripura's economy on that of Bangladesh was emphasised
The economy of Tripura can be characterized by high rate of poverty, low capital formation, inadequate infrastructure facilities, geographical isolation and communication bottlenecks, inadequate exploration and use of forest and mineral resources, slow industrialization and high unemployment. More than 50% of the population depends on agriculture for sustaining their livelihood. However agriculture and allied activities to Gross State Domestic Production (GSDP) is only 23%, this is primarily because of low capital base in the sector. Despite the inherent limitation and constraints coupled with severe resources for investing in basic infrastructure, this has brought consistence progress in quality of life and income of people cutting across all sections of society. The state government through its Tripura Industrial Policy and Tripura Industrial Incentives Scheme, 2012 has offered heavy subsidies in capital investment and transport, preferences in government procurement, waivers in tender processes and fees, yet the impact has been not much significant beyond a few industries being set up in the Bodhjungnagar Industrial Growth Center.
The Planning Commission estimates the poverty rate of all North East Indian states by using head count ratio of Assam (the largest state in North East India). According to 2001 Planning Commission assessment, 22 per cent of Tripura's rural residents were below the poverty line. However, Tripura government's independent assessment, based on consumption distribution data, reported that, in 2001, 55 per cent of the rural population was below the poverty line. Geographic isolation and communication bottleneck coupled with insufficient infrastructure have restricted economic growth of the state. High rate of poverty and unemployment continues to be prevalent.