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Uttar Pradesh is bound by Nepal on the North, Himachal Pradesh on the northwest, Haryana on the west, Rajasthan on the southwest, Madhya Pradesh on the south and south- west and Bihar on the east. Situated between 23° 52' N and 31° 28' N latitudes and 77° 3' and 84° 39'E longitudes, this is the fourth largest state in the country. Uttar Pradesh can be divided into three distinct hypsographical regions: 1. The Himalayan region in the North
2. The Gangetic plain in the centre
3. The Vindya hills and plateau in the south
The Central Government has alloted 12 Smart Cities for Uttar Pradesh State. They are
Uttar Pradesh is now divided into seventy-one districts under eighteen divisions. Districts are administered by District Magistrates, and divisions are administered by Divisional Commissioners. Lucknow, the capital of the state, constitutes the Lucknow district. Other districts are further divided into administrative units such as subdivisions and blocks, administered by SDO and BDO, respectively. The Panchayati Raj has a three-tier structure in the state. The atomic unit is called a Gram Panchayat, which is the Panchayat organization for a collection of villages. The block-level organizations are called Panchayat Samiti, and the districtlevel organizations are named Zilla Parishad.
The Ganga plain which dominates the landscape and nearly covers three fourth of the geographical area of the State, lies between the rocky Himalayan belt in the north and the southern hilly tract comprised of mainly Pre-Cambrian rocks. Flexing of the Indian lithosphere in response to the compressive forces due to collision, and thrust fold loading produced the Ganga Plain foreland basin. It is filled with recent alluvial sediments which are at places more than 1,000 m. thick and an amalgam of sand, silt, clay in varying proportions. The southern hilly tract is roughly parallel to the Ganga-Yamuna lineament. The tract is underlain by granitic complex in Bundelkhand region and in Sonbhadra. It is overlain by rocks Mahakoshal (Bijawar) and Vindhyan Super group. The younger rock comprise of coal bearing Gondwana in south Sonbhadra and basaltic rocks in southern part of Lalitpur.
The granitic complex is considered to be potential for the search of metallic minerals like copper, lead, zinc, molybdenum, gold, nickel, Uranium and Platinum group of elements. The overlying sediments of Mahakoshal (Bijawar) and associated Iron Formation show a potential for the search of copper, uranium, and gold in Lalitpur and andalusite, sillimanite, gold, calcite, marble and clay in sonbhadra. The lower Vindhyan sediments of Sonbhadra contain deposits of cement grade limestone, flux grade dolomites, building stone and are also potential for the search of placer gold and other metals. The Upper Vindhyan sandstones are suitable for making decorative slab/tiles or ballast. Deposits of silica sands and bauxite are available in Allahabad and chitrakoot districts while coal deposits occur in the Gondwana rocks in southwestern corner of Sonbhadra.
Uttar Pradesh can be divided into three distinct hypsographical regions:
The sub-Himalayan Terai region in the North - Highly fertile soil, thick forests with rich flora and fauna.
The Gangetic Plain in the centre - Highly fertile alluvial soils; flat topography broken by numerous ponds, lakes and rivers; slope 2 m/km
The Vindhya Hills and plateau in the south - Hard rock Strata; varied topography of hills, plains, valleys and plateau; limited water availability.
The transitional belt running along the entire length of the state is called the Terai and Bhabhar area. It has rich forests, cutting across it are innumerable streams which swell into raging torrents during the monsoon. The Bhabhar tract gives place to the Terai area which is covered with tall elephant grass and thick forests interspersed with marshes and swamps. The sluggish rivers of the Bhabhar deepen in this area, their course running through a tangled mass of thick under growth. The main crops are wheat, rice, and sugar cane. Jute also is grown.
The most important area for the economy of the state is the Gangetic plain which stretches across the entire length of the state from east to west. The entire alluvial plain can be divided into three sub-regions. The first is the eastern tract consisting of 14 districts which are subject to periodical floods and droughts and have been classified as scarcity areas. These districts have the highest density of population which gives the lowest per capita land. The other two regions, the central and the western are comparatively better with a well-developed irrigation system. They suffer from water logging and large-scale user tracts. The Gangetic plain is watered by the Yamuna, the Ganga and its major tributaries, the Ramganga, the Gomati, the Ghaghra and Gandak. The whole plain is alluvial and very fertile. The chief crops cultivated here are rice, wheat, pearl millet, gram, and barley. Sugar cane is the chief cash crop of the region.
The Southern fringe of the Gangetic is demarcated by the Vindhya Hills and plateau. It comprises the four districts of Jhansi, Jalaun, Banda, and Hamirpur in Bundelkhand division, Meja and Karchhana tehsils of Allahabad district, the whole of Mirzapur District south of Ganges and Chakia tehsil of Varanasi District. The ground is strong with low hills. The Betwa and Ken rivers join the Jamuna from the south-west in this region. It has four distinct kinds of soil, two of which are agriculturally difficult to manage. They are black cotton soil. Rainfall is scanty and erratic and water-resources are scare. Dry farming is practical on a large scale.
Six well defined and distinct soil groups differing from one another in their geological formation and pedogenic characters have been recognized. These are Bhabar soils, Tarai soils, Vindhyan soils, Bundelkhand soils, Aravali soils and Alluvial soils. Each of these soil groups have developed under the combined influence of a wide range of soil forming factors including climate, vegetation and parent materials. The major coverage of alluvial soil in further grouped as saline alkaline- soils, Karail soils and Bhatt soils.
State climate is subtropical and congenial for agriculture. In winter the average minimum temperature ranges from 250C in northern part of the plains to 150C in eastern part of the state. The maximum temperature during hot season varies from 320C in Northern part to 460C in South Western part of the state. Annual relative humidity ranges from 60 to 70% in North Eastern Tarai region to 30 – 40% in South Western areas.
The normal annual rainfall of the state is 947.4 mm and it ranges from 710 mm to 1750 mm during 40 years. The tarai foot hill receives heavy rainfall while in south part rainfall decreases. The large percentage of the annual rainfall over the state is received during June to September. The winter rainfall is received during December to February that is more in North-West part of the Uttar Pradesh. As regards the precipitation trend in the South West and South Eastern part of the state, it ranges from 672 to 1381 mm.
Based on rainfall, terrain and soil characteristics, 9 agro climatic zones have been recognized in the state of Uttar Pradesh. These include Tarai Western Plain, Central Western Plain, South Western Semi Arid, Central Plain, Bundelkahnd, North Eastern Plain, Eastern Plain and Vindhyan hills zones. Agro climatically the south plateau is most erratic and diversified as it lies between Bundelkhand and Vindhyan agroclimatic zones.
Socio Economic Profile
Uttar Pradesh has been one of the most highly populated states in India for a long time now. The census over the years has put the state at the pinnacle in terms of population. Located in the northern region of the country, the state shares its borders with states like Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar and Haryana. The state also borders the capital of India New Delhi along with the newly formed state of Uttarakhand. Uttar Pradesh has been one of the oldest states in the country and in every single way reflects the life and culture of India as a whole. The state has a population of about 190 million according to the Uttar Pradesh Census 2011. The growth rate of the population of Uttar Pradesh is about 20% which is alarming among the highest growth rates in the country.
Disaster in Uttar Pradesh (UP)
Habitual natural disasters in the State over the years have been causing severe damage and adversely affecting human, plant and animal life, property and environment. Natural disasters that are of significance in Uttar Pradesh are Floods, Droughts, Fires and Earthquakes. Loss of life and property from these disasters, especially the former three, are in terms of hundreds of crores of rupees annually. Considerable efforts are made every year, both by the government and the public, to mitigate the losses encountered during a disaster. But recurring floods, droughts and Description 2011 Population 199,581,477 Population Growth 20.09% Population Density/sq. km 828 Male 104,596,415 Female 94,985,062 Sex Ratio 908 Percentage of total Population 16.49% Literacy 69.72 % Male Literacy 79.24 % Female Literacy 59.26 % Total Literate 118,423,805 Male Literate 70,479,196 Female Literate 47,944,609 fires have been pointers to the manifestation of increased vulnerabilities and inadequacy of the various sporadic mitigation measures attempted.
The emerging context is an increase in frequency of disasters, their escalating cost, rising levels of vulnerability, narrowing differences between natural & manmade disasters amidst an increasingly fragile, environment. This underscores the dire need for a holistic approach to dovetail mitigation efforts with development programmes in the State. Emergency preparedness is crucial for recovery from disasters with minimal loss of life and property.
Floods Of the various natural disasters floods are the most commonly occurring in Uttar Pradesh, affecting almost every year some part of the state or the other. Important rivers, which create floods in the State, are the Ganga, the Yamuna, the Ramganga, the Gomti, the Sharda, the Ghaghra, the Rapti and the Gandak. The Ganga River basin of U.P. experiences normal rainfall in the region from 60 cm to 190 cm of which more than 80% occur during the southwest monsoon. The rainfall increases from west to east and from south to north .Similar is the pattern of floods, the problem increases from west to east and south to north. Out of the 240.93 lakh hectares geographical area of the State about 73.06 lakh hectares is flood prone. As per the Irrigation Department's estimate, only 58.72 lakh can actually be protected. Up to March 2004, Only 16.01 lakh hectares has been protected. The eastern districts as well as those situated in the Terai region bordering Nepal are the most affected. Due to floods an average of 26.89 lakh hectares is affected annually, and the estimated loss to crops, houses and livestock is to the tune of Rs.432 crore annually. Apart from these, loss of human life also occurs.
Drought is another major disaster affecting the State of Uttar Pradesh. The State produces about 21 percent of all food grains of the country, and hence is agriculturally an important State. The total sown area is 25.30 million ha out of which, 17.69 million ha. is irrigated area.(66% is irrigated). Of the irrigated area, canals contribute about 25%, tube wells about 67% and ponds, lakes etc. the remaining. Thus one third of the irrigated area and the entire extent of rain fed area in the State are dependent on monsoon rains. The recharge of groundwater through rains accounts about 80 % of total recharge. The monsoon rain accounts 70-80% of the total rainfall in a year in our region. The State of U.P. has been divided into two meteorological sub-divisions, viz. U.P. East, and U.P. West. The recurrence period of highly deficient rainfall in East U.P. has been calculated to be 6 to 8 years whereas in West U.P. it is 10 years. The annual loss due to drought in the State varies depending on the severity of the drought. In the recent years, the year 2002, & 2004 were severe in terms of drought, with loss to crop, livestock and property assessed at Rs.7540 crores and Rs. 7292 crores respectively.
Uttar Pradesh is the third largest economy in India after Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. Uttar Pradesh's gross state domestic product for 2004 is $339.5 billion by PPP and $80.9 billion by nominal. After partition, the new Uttar Pradesh state produces about 92% of the output of the old Uttar Pradesh state. Between 1999 and 2008, the economy grew only 79.4% per year, one of the lowest rates in India. But between 2007 and 2011 under the Mayawati govt, the economy grew at over 7% GDP growth rate in the time when Indian economy faced the melt down due to global recession. Furthermore, UP has been one of the five state including Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Punjab, Maharashtra, have registered growth rates higher than their respective targets set for the 11th Plan period (2007–12) so far. Uttar Pradesh registered a growth rate of 7.28% against the target of 6.10%.Uttar Pradesh attains an 8.08% GDP growth rate in 2010–2011. The state's debt was estimated at 67 per cent of GDP in 2005. In 2012, the state was one of the highest receiver of overall remittances to India which stood at $0.1 billion (Rs. 3,42,884.05 crore), along with Kerala, Tamil Nadu, and Punjab.
Economically Uttar Pradesh is among the most backward States of India, characterized by the pre– dominance of the agricultural sector with heavy dependence on Monsoon, high percentage of marginal and small land holdings, high population pressure, small manufacturing sector, structural deficiencies in infrastructure, glaring regional imbalances and sluggish economic growth.
Income levels are an important determinant of the economic well being and social development. In terms of per capita income, U.P. is among the ‘low income category’ States along with Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and Orissa. Moreover, due to sluggish economic growth in U.P., the gap in per capita income of the State and that of the country has been increasing. Per capita income in U.P., which was almost equal to the national average in the beginning of the planning period, is now half of the national average.
Agriculture and Fishering
Uttar Pradesh is a major contributor to the
national food grain stock. Partly this is due to the fertile regions
of the Indo-Gangetic plain and partly owing to irrigation measures
such as the Ganges Canal and tube-wells. Lakhimpur Kheri is a
densely populated sugar producing district in the country. It has
been the most common producer of food grains in India since the
1950s due to high-yielding varieties of seed, greater availability
of fertilizers and increased use of irrigation.
Western Uttar Pradesh is more advanced in terms of agriculture as compared to the other regions in the state. Majority of the state population depends upon farming activities. Wheat, rice, pulses, oil seeds and potatoes are the major agricultural products. Sugarcane is the most important cash crop throughout the state. Uttar Pradesh is one of the most important state in India so far as horticulture is concerned. Mangoes are also produced in the state.
Uttar Pradesh supports about 15% of India's total livestock population. Of its livestock in 1961, 15% were cattle, 21% buffaloes, 13% goats and 8% other livestock. Between 1951 and 1956 there was an overall increase of 14% in the livestock population. There are about 8,000 km² of water area, including lakes, tanks, rivers, canals and streams. The fishing area in the state is over 2,000 km² and there are more than 175 varieties of fish.
UP has also witnessed rapid industrialization
in the recent past, particularly after the launch of policies of
economic liberalization in the country. As of March 1996, there were
1,661 medium and large industrial undertakings and 296,338 small
industrial units employing 1.83 million persons. The per capita
state domestic product was estimated at Rs 7,263 in 1997–98 and
there has been visible decline in poverty in the state. Yet, nearly
40 percent of the total population lives below the poverty line.
There are numerous types of minerals and many industries have come
up based upon these minerals. There are a number of cement plants in
Mirzapur in the Vindhya region, a bauxite-based aluminium plant in
the Banda region and Sonbhadra region. In the hilly regions of the
state many non-metallic minerals are found which are used as
industrial raw materials. Coal deposits are found in the Singrauli
The state is poor in mineral resources. The only considerable deposits are of limestone in Mirzapur district. These are being extracted and are used largely in cement manufacture. Uttar Pradesh has booming electronics industries, especially in UP-Delhi-NCR and Lucknow-Kanpur Corridor. It produces almost all types of durables.
Cottage industries, such as handloom and handicrafts, have traditionally provided livelihood to a large number of people in the state: -
Varanasi is a world famous centre of handloom woven, embroidered textiles; the main products are Zari-embroidery and brocade-work on silk sarees. Lucknow is a centre of 'Chikan' embroidery, renowned for its grace and delicacy, a skill more than 200 years old. Uttar Pradesh produces about 15% of the total fabric production of the country, employs about 30% of the total workforce of artisans in India and is responsible for an annual production of about US$0,1 million in the state.
The state has two major production centres of leather and leather products, with over 11,500 units; Agra and Kanpur are the key centres. About 200 tanneries are located in Kanpur.
Moradabad is renowned for brass work and has carved a niche for itself in the handicraft industry throughout the world. Lately other products that are also produced here like iron sheet metalwares, aluminium artworks, wood works and glassware's have also become popular with the numerous foreign buyers and are therefore being exported in large quantities. On an average Moradabad exports goods worth Rs. 30–40 billion each year, which constitutes 40% of total exports from India under this category.
Meerut is the biggest gold market of Asia. It is the biggest exporter of sports related items and music instruments of the country.
Uttar Pradesh is the 'IT-Hub' of North India,
with a share of software exports next to that of Karnataka. But,
unlike South Indian states, IT enterprises are limited to particular
areas only, like NOIDA, Greater NOIDA, Ghaziabad etc., which lie in
National Capital Region (NCR), and in state capital Lucknow.
Noida is also famous for TV News broadcasters almost all News channels such as ABP News, Zee News, Ndtv, Mahua News and several other News channels are in Film City.
Asia's first and the world's second human DNA bank has been set up in Lucknow. Rs 4-bn Discovery Park, for which an approval has been given by the Ministry of Science and Technology, is to be set up in the Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Information Technology (RGIIT), Amethi.
Uttar Pradesh has ample reserves of coal, dolomite and gems. Other Important minerals include diaspore, sulphur and magnesite, pyrophyllite, silica sand and limestone. It is of great use to the people of Uttar Pradesh as well as it supports the economy of the country and indirectly affects the economy of the world.
Uttar Pradesh attracts a large number of both
national and international visitors. There are two regions in the
state where a majority of the tourists go. These are the city of
Agra, Lucknow and the holy cities: the cities of Varanasi, Ayodhya,
Mathura, and Allahabad, by the sacred rivers – the Ganges and the
Yamuna are all located in the state. The state hosts a Kumbha Mela
every 12 years, where over 10 million Hindus congregate – the
largest gathering of human beings in the world.
A vast number of tourists visit the Taj Mahal in Agra. Another important tourist attraction in Agra is the Agra Fort. Also famous is a 16th-century capital city built by the Mughal emperor Akbar known as Fatehpur Sikri near Agra. Dayal Bagh is a temple built in modern times that many visit. It is still under construction, and would take an estimated one century for completion. The lifelike carving in marble is not seen anywhere else in India.
Dudhwa National Park is one of the best Tiger reserves in the country. Lakhimpur Kheri is a must see location, and home to the Tiger reserve., In September 2008, Uttar Pradesh has got another Tiger Reserve area in Pilibhit named Pilibhit Tiger Reserve. Millions of tourists and pilgrims visit the cities of Allahabad, Varanasi and Ayodhya, as those are considered to be the holiest cities in India. Every year thousands gather at Allahabad to take part in the festival on the banks of the Ganges, the Magh Mela. The same festival is organised in a larger scale every 12th year and attracts millions of people and is called the Kumbha Mela.
Varanasi is widely considered to be the second oldest city in the world after Jerusalem. It is famous for its ghats (steps along the river) which are populated year round with people who want to take a dip in the holy Ganges River.
About 13 km from Varanasi is the historically important town of Sarnath. Gautama Buddha gave his first sermon at Sarnath after his enlightenment and hence is an important pilgrimage site for the Buddhists. Also at Sarnath are the Ashoka Pillar and the Lion Capital, both important archaeological artifacts with national significance. Uttar Pradesh industrial city is Kanpur. There are many places to visit: Nanarao Park, Sudhansu Ji Maharaj Aashram, Motijheel, Iskon Temple, Phoolbagh, Ganga Bairaj, etc., and many more other places. There is also a place in Bithoor 25 km from Kanpur city where goddess Sita lived with Maharishi Valmiki.
Handlooms and handicraft
Handlooms and handicrafts are a very important source of income in UP . There are thousands of powerlooms and handlooms mostly of which in eastern UP. Lacs of people depend on it for their livelihood. Main centres in eastern UP are Tanda, Banaras, Azamgarh, Bhadohi, Mau, Mau Aima etc. While in western UP some of the important are Meerut, Itawa . In eastern UP Tanda is small town which population is 1.5 lac near about and exists more than 1 lac powerloom there as well as in the surroundings. Main products are Lungi, Gamcha, Stoles, Arabic Rumaal and garment clothes.